Education

The Inter-American Dialogue’s Education Program aims to improve the quality of learning and skills development across Latin America. We do so by partnering with public and private organizations throughout the hemisphere to promote informed debate on education policy, identify and disseminate best practices, and monitor progress toward improvement. Our cutting-edge analysis of education policy and broad network of policymakers, education experts, business leaders, academics, and journalists have made it the strongest private voice on education in the region.

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How has the pandemic affected the growth of children in the Latin American region? In Colombia, the organization NiñezYA seeks to understand how the pandemic has affected children and jeopardized their rights. We had the opportunity to talk to Ángela Constanza Jerez Trujillo, coordinator of NiñezYA, about their new report and its implications for both Colombia and Latin America.

The report highlights that the pandemic will leave its imprint on all of us, but especially on children and teenagers. While medically this population is not considered a high-risk group, the impact is noticeable in a significant uptick in maternal deaths, lack of healthcare for children and teenagers, increased food insecurity, decreased access to healthy food, and reduction in food portions. The World Bank estimates that between 88 and 115 million people were left in extreme poverty in 2020. What are the expected consequences of this situation?

In NiñezYA, we have analyzed the particular situation of Colombia in relation to these issues and the results are very concerning. In particular, maternal deaths have a devastating effect on infants. Studies show that the likelihood of survival in children whose mothers died during the first 42 days after childbirth is much lower compared to children of surviving mothers. In addition, maternal deaths prevent easy access to milk and maternal care, which are key in early development. In 2019, 261 early maternal deaths were filed in Colombia, while in 2020 there were 348. Although this cannot be solely attributed to the pandemic, the current situation suggests that hospital services are prioritizing Covid-19 care, limiting fronts such as child and maternal care.

Number of early maternal deaths * accumulated by epidemiological week 2020:

 

Gráfico número de muertes maternas tempranas

Neonatal mortality rate due to obstetric complications and birth trauma. II quarter years 2008 to 2020:

 

Gráfico tasa de defunciones no fetales de recién nacidos

As for the lack of monitoring of the health and development of children, the consequences are immeasurable at this time, as there is no knowledge of what happened to children who did not attend their check-ups, especially during the first year of life and gestation, when humans go through the greatest developmental changes. Having timely information on the difficulties that children may have growing up makes an important difference in taking appropriate action.

As for food insecurity, which is directly related to lack of income for families, research shows that it is affecting the most vulnerable populations, as well as new populations who were not previously affected by the issue. Prior to the pandemic and its restrictions, a total of 89.3 percent of Colombia's households consumed three meals a day. Now, that figure has dropped to 69.3percent, according to the National Administrative Department of Statistics’ (DANE) Social Pulse survey of December 2020. In certain regions of the country, that percentage is even lower. This is the case in the Caribbean region, where there are cities like Santa Marta, where it went from 99.5 percent to 40.1 percent; or Cartagena which was at 70.3 percent and is now at 34.1 percent (See chart in the report here).

This situation will result in an increase in obesity, chronic and acute malnutrition rates, conditions that increase the risk of chronic nontransmissible diseases, and will cause lags for the rest of a child's life if it occurs during early childhood. Chronic malnutrition affects physical and cognitive development and acute malnutrition can lead to death. Fundación Success estimates that Colombia will be set back four years in its goal of having zero cases of chronic malnutrition in children under 5 years of age by 2034, which is now at 10.8 percent on average.

What actions should countries in the region take to remedy this situation?

At NiñezYA, we advocate for the following (see the full list here):

  • Regularly conduct surveys and evaluations on different dimensions of well-being. These provide warning signs essential for decision-making. It is important to take into account the different phases of development, since the effects are not the same on early childhood, childhood, adolescence or youth.
  • Make administrative processes that provide communities with water, sanitation, and an adequate educational environment more flexible with the urgency that the context requires.
  • Establish prioritized strategies for the care of pregnant people amid the contingency that would reduce maternal deaths and the implications that they can have on children in the first instance.
  • Promote strategies that maintain child development check-ups and breastfeeding counseling because it combats malnutrition and is effective against food insecurity.
  • Prioritize intervention in regions where there is a combination of high rates of malnutrition and Covid-19 effects, including territories most likely to experience food insecurity due to lack of production or inability to purchase food.
  • Ensure that all households have sufficient and nutritious food.
  • Work together with government institutions, civil society, academia, and international organizations, among others, to provide livelihoods to the most vulnerable families and to efficiently operate the mechanisms necessary for comprehensive protection of children, taking into account differential aspects such as gender, ethnicity, geographical location, disability status, among other identities. Join efforts between local and national governments, civil society organizations, and international organizations to address the social and economic challenges of the pandemic in children and teenagers.

We have observed that during the pandemic the physical and emotional health of children and teenagers has suffered greatly. This study highlights that "the effects on the socio-emotional state of children, as well as caregivers, is another relevant problem," which is evident in surveys that mention symptoms of increased anxiety and worry. What long-term effects can be expected of this situation? How should this problem be addressed and which sectors and actors should play a relevant role in addressing this issue?

Different surveys and evaluations show socio-emotional problems in children, teenagers, and their parents and caregivers. Lack of social interaction, limited demonstrations of affection, and living in a context of fear can affect emotional intelligence and the development of nonverbal cognitive, social, and communicative skills in children, especially the youngest.

The emotional impact on adults also affects children and teenagers. The presence of toxic levels of stress during pregnancy can affect the development of the brain structures of the fetus in the womb. Additionally, the high levels of stress adults experience can seriously interfere with care and parenting skills.

We believe that the best way to address this issue is by returning to development centers for children and schools, with all biosecurity measures. This should be coupled with accompanying and training caregivers and teachers so that they can support children and teenagers in this new process that is unfamiliar to all of us. In this sense, the participation of the education sector, the health sector, parents' associations, experts in education and mental health and civil society, among others, is required. It is important to listen to children and teenagers on how to address this problem and take their opinions into account.

Scientific evidence sustains the relevance of preschool education. An Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) (2020) simulation estimates significant losses in gross domestic product (GDP) if children stop attending preschool. During the pandemic, countries have invested in educational technology to support remote education, however, many students do not yet have access to devices or a stable internet connection. This has widened learning gaps and inequity in education. Considering what we learned during the pandemic regarding the use and access to Information and Communications Technology (ICT) and the relationship between in-person and virtual assistance, what measures should be strengthened to ensure universal access to quality education in Colombia and other countries in the region?

In the case of Colombia, similarly to the rest of the region, internet access and devices are not the same for children and teenagers. This depends on their socioeconomic sphere and geographical location (rural or urban). For example, in Bogota (the capital), 8 out of 10 private school students have access to high-speed internet, while 5 out of 10 students from official colleges have access to high-speed internet access (National Consulting Center, Uniandes and ProBogotá). In addition, the capacities of the adults who accompany and supervise them are not the same and that also impacts education.

NiñezYA supports the recommendations that education experts have pointed out, several of whom are in our coalition. These include (see full list here):

  • Ensure that all students, regardless of whether they are in public or private school or their socioeconomic status, can be connected to their school, teachers and peers. This includes access to a quality teaching-learning process accompanied by technological and training tools for its use.
  • Design a digital package for education that includes the entire educational community.
  • Develop strategies for remedial education, dropout prevention, emotional well-being and increased confidence in hybrid models, and which include the entire educational community. Encourage remaining in school through incentives for workings with school-aged children.
  • Support the formulation and implementation of new training strategies and follow-through with teachers and managers to strengthen teaching effectiveness during and immediately after the pandemic.
  • Anticipate strategies to serve students who will transition from the private to the public sector, so that the public sector is not overburdened and the quality does not deteriorate.

It is important to keep in mind the following recommendations to care for the population with disabilities, which is now more marginalized than before the pandemic, according to information from Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC).

  • Strengthen the collection and systematization of disability data in the instruments of national statistical systems.
  • Ensure an inclusive, differential, and cross-cutting approach to all policies and actions implemented to mitigate the effects of the pandemic, giving participation to the disabled population and civil society organizations.
  • Make the accommodations and adjustments required to protect the principle of non-discrimination on the grounds of disability in the provision of basic healthcare services.
  • Ensure that universal measures (curriculum adaptations and inclusive design of online education platforms and proposals) are accompanied by permanent support resources for families and community.

In Colombia, the study highlights that there is concern in the community about dropouts. What recommendations can be made to governments and schools to combat dropouts in 2021 and after the pandemic?

It is important to note that the 7.6 percent dropout rate is specific to Bogota, the capital city, and could now be up to three times what was reported in 2020. There is no information at the national level.

NiñezYA is supporting the return of children and teenagers to schools, with all biosecurity measures, with the campaign called PresentesYA. At this time, March 31, 2021, only 11.6 percent of students from educational institutions in the official sector have returned to school (according to figures from Fundación Empresarios por la Educación, a member of NiñezYA). In order for them to return, on the one hand, local authorities are required to utilize the central resources allocated in the proportion educational institutions need. As of the above date, only 22.7 percent of these resources have been implemented. On the other hand, it is urgent that the central government completes the work that had begun to update the school infrastructure that had large lags (buildings from 60 years ago that did not have basic services such as water, sewage, light, and sanitary batteries). Similarly, the government must design strategies that combat the reasons for the dropouts, which have to do with school (learning) and family (income, among others) problems.

Fundación Empresarios por la Educación, a member of NiñezYA, conducted a survey of the country's education secretaries, representing 64.4 percent of school enrollment. They noted several important elements to consider when developing strategies to combat dropouts, including:

  • Continuing to foster dialogue among members of the educational community to build trust and mitigate perceptions of risk in the face of school reopening.
  • Strengthening safe return campaigns to classrooms; prioritizing teacher strengthening processes in-person and remote teaching frameworks to ensure educational quality.
  • Incorporating monitoring and evaluation frameworks for advanced training programs to identify sustainable practices.
  • Strengthening the specialized education teams that accompany educational institutions to facilitate learning recovery and necessary curriculum adjustments in the current context.
  • Accompanying educational institutions in incorporating quality digital content into remote teaching and learning frameworks.
  • Delivering guides, printed materials, and other resources that do not require connectivity. This becomes more relevant when considering that the hybrid model also requires remote plans.

Domestic violence has been a major challenge during the pandemic in the region. In the report, a key recommendation to mitigate domestic violence and other situations that jeopardize the well-being of children is to strengthen the "peaceful interpersonal, family and community relationships, based on respect, reciprocity and communication" with the understanding that "children and teenagers need new paradigms based on loving parenting and building equitable gender roles." Have there been successful programs that promote healthy communication at home?

At the stroke of midnight on March 23, the Colombian Congress passed a law against physical punishment, that forbids parents and caregivers from the use of any form of mistreatment to educate children and teenagers. The law also has a pedagogical, persuasive and alternative objective, through the promotion of loving, violence-free parenting practices, respectful of the fundamental rights of children in Colombia. To this end, the project encourages the creation of a national pedagogical strategy, through which parents can access counseling and psychological support to acquire tools that will help them raise their children and correct them without violence. Government entities related to this issue, civil society, parents, and coalitions such as NiñezYA are expected to participate in this strategy.

A final reflection: the importance of healthy play and conversations are a crucial aspect of the development of children. How can countries in the region regain playful and healthy spaces after the pandemic? Who can lead these efforts?

Longitudinal research conducted by the National University of Colombia on children who attended and did not attend play libraries (known in Spanish as Ludotecas, which are public spaces with toys designed to encourage play) showed that the former were able to develop skills for coexistence, such as the ability to listen, negotiate, put themselves in each other's shoes, and be creative. It is important that national and local governments provide exclusive spaces for children to play with each other and have encounters with adults. This promotes healthy family coexistence and peer empathy. NiñezYA suggests:

  • Recognizing the importance of allocating budgets for quality sustainable spaces with prepared staff and appropriate infrastructure for enjoying games, in playrooms, libraries, and public parks, ensuring that children feel safe without environmental or social risks. Differential aspects such as gender, ethnicity, geographical location and disability status, among other identities, should be taken into account.
  • Creating ongoing programs for families to understand the importance of progressive and safe return to recreation, sport, and culture activities for children and teenagers in open spaces.
  • Insisting on training teachers, mothers, parents and caregivers on the importance of recognizing playing as an important right.

All these efforts must be led by local authorities and include the entire community and input from children and teenagers.

RELATED RESOURCES

The pandemic jeopartized the rights of children - NiñezYa Report

[post_title] => The Pandemic Has Jeopardized the Rights of Children – An Interview with Ángela Jerez Trujillo [post_excerpt] => How has the pandemic affected the growth of children in the Latin American region? Ángela Constanza Jerez, coordinator of NiñezYA, presents the findings of their latest report on the impact of the pandemic on the rights of children. [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => the-pandemic-has-jeopardized-the-rights-of-children-an-interview-angela-constanza-jerez [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2021-06-07 12:29:50 [post_modified_gmt] => 2021-06-07 12:29:50 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.thedialogue.org/?p=111017 [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => post [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [1] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 101691 [post_author] => 66 [post_date] => 2020-10-20 13:28:57 [post_date_gmt] => 2020-10-20 13:28:57 [post_content] =>

How to increase productivity and competitiveness in a complex and changing environment? The new report of the Organization of Ibero-American States for Education, Science and Culture (OEI), "Higher Education, Productivity and Competitiveness in Ibero-America," seeks to answer this question and offer some recommendations to resolve the existing gaps. We had the opportunity to talk with Mariano Jabonero, Secretary General of the OEI, about the new report and its implications for the Ibero-American region.

Despite significant growth in higher education participation rates in Ibero-America, productivity indicators in the region remain stagnant. To what can we attribute this situation? What are the most important factors to consider?

Beyond the challenges in competitiveness and productivity that Ibero-America faces, we must consider that the global labor market is in a process of continuous transformation due to several mega-trends. In this sense, to increase productivity and competitiveness, Ibero-America needs to complement investment in human capital with greater efforts in areas of innovation, research, and development.

As identified in the recent report of the OEI's Ibero-American Institute for Education and Productivity, "Higher Education, Competitiveness and Productivity in Ibero-America," one of the problems related to low productivity in Ibero-America is the high level of informality in the labor market, which in many countries covers around 50 percent of employees. This implies that if, through public policies, some of the informal employment could be transferred to the formal sector, there would be significant gains in aggregate productivity.

In this regard, one of the key factors for increasing competitiveness and productivity in the region should focus on finding the balance between adoption and development of technology and investment in human capital, through quality education and more pertinent technical and higher education training.

A major challenge mentioned in the report is the gap between supply and demand in certain university degrees. For example, in several Ibero-American countries, almost a third of university graduates have studied business administration and law, while less than five percent of students receive diplomas in the field of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs). What role do universities and/or companies have in addressing this imbalance? How can the careers of the future be made more attractive?

Improving student's skills and adapting them to the labor market is clearly in the strategic interest of universities, since this will allow the creation of capabilities that increase the productivity of people, especially taking into account the current technology and existing equipment and machinery.

To respond to the challenges posed by the gaps between supply and demand for skills, the incorporation of competencies in line with the new work environment must occur at all educational stages, including higher education. For positive results, this development should be a two-way process, since companies will also be able to inform universities of labor market demands, producing feedback, and contributing to the constant change of programs.

Various teaching models can help to meet the challenges of the future:

  • Online colleges make education available to anyone, anywhere, anytime.

  • Cluster models linking the university with services and facilities from multiple institutions.

  • Liberal arts colleges that personalize the university experience and offer intellectual capacity development over technical or vocational skills.

  • Partnership models linking colleges with external organizations to secure funding and improve employment opportunities for graduates.

  • Experimental institutions that provide different learning experiences outside the classroom, such as internships, projects, and challenges.

As we are advocating from the OEI, all of these recommendations consider higher education as a key public policy to improve productivity, rather than purely an academic issue.

We are all living through historic times with the Covid-19 pandemic and the economic and educational impacts it has produced, which will surely continue even after the immediate health crisis is resolved. At the same time, it seems that there is a real opportunity for us not to return to the “normal” of before. What opportunities exist to rethink higher education and productivity in Ibero-America? What sectors or skills are even more essential in this new reality?

The impact of Covid-19 is a clear example of a phenomenon that will involve a reinvention process for many workers, and the workers who have a greater ability to move from the hardest-hit sectors to new activities will be the ones who can make the most effective transition across the labor market. This situation highlights the benefits of possessing cross-cutting skills that are reusable and not limited to a particular profession.

In this sense, the pandemic presents a massive challenge, which is why there must be a commitment to an increase in quality education, complemented by greater public-private collaborations to create the conditions for increased productivity and competitiveness, and by taking advantage of new technologies.

Various research studies, such as the one presented by the OEI Institute, show that Ibero-America is not adequately prepared for the digital revolution because it lacks professionals with advanced digital knowledge and skills. This once again highlights the importance of cross-cutting skills, which unlike disciplinary knowledge, are not specifically related to a job, a task, a sector, an occupation, or an academic discipline, but can be used in different situations and work scenarios.

It will probably be very difficult to solve the productivity problem without addressing the issue of inequality, both in higher education participation rates and in the jobs graduates obtain and the salaries they earn. What can be done not only to close the gap in access to higher education but also to guarantee relevant education and the acquisition of cross-cutting skills for students, especially those from vulnerable sectors?

Despite the fact that higher education indicators in the region have shown a positive trend, the focus should be placed on the relevance of study programs and the ability of institutions to respond to the challenges of skill training required by the labor market. As I already mentioned, to increase productivity and competitiveness, Ibero-America needs to complement investment in human capital with greater efforts in the areas of innovation, research, and development.

The gap between the supply and demand of skills requires greater coordination between universities and companies, but the public sector also plays a fundamental role since it can provide incentives, information, and resources to facilitate this coordination. Because of this, it becomes essential to add skills in line with the demands of the labor market and work environments at all stages of education, including higher education.

A key recommendation of the report is to strengthen the communication between tertiary education institutions, governments, and the private sector for "the alignment of objectives and the design, implementation and evaluation of higher education policy" (p. 51). Some encouraging examples of this type of coordination are provided, such as Chile's Council of Mining Competencies. Why have these initiatives been successful and not others? Are there certain contextual characteristics that facilitate collaboration? What lessons can be drawn from these experiences?

Multilateral and national institutions in the region are increasingly aware of the challenge that aligning skills represents. Because of this, they have promoted initiatives that delve into research on professional skill sets and the labor market. These organizations are devoting resources exclusively to studying and generating proposals on this topic.

Created in 2012 as an initiative of the Chilean Mining Council, the Mining Skills Council of Chile is a specialized group that aims to "as an industry, provide information, both in qualitative and quantitative terms, that allows the training offered to technicians and professionals to be adapted to the demands of the mining labor market". Specifically, the Mining Skills Council of Chile carried out a sector-wide approach through a model of cross-cutting skills for the mining industry 4.0, with the participation of companies across the country. The main mining companies, trade associations, state institutions, and suppliers have collaborated in this process, an important aspect to take into account when seeking greater replicability of this kind of initiatives in the future.

RELATED RESOURCES

Higher Education, Productivity and Competitiveness in Ibero-America

Dual Education in Latin America: Challenges and Opportunities

Covid-19 in the Americas: The Dialogue’s Coronavirus Updates

[post_title] => Higher Education, Productivity and Competitiveness in Ibero-America - An Interview with Mariano Jabonero [post_excerpt] => How to increase productivity and competitiveness in a complex and changing environment? Mariano Jabonero, Secretary General of the OEI, presents the findings of their latest report "Higher Education, Productivity and Competitiveness in Ibero-America" and answers our questions. [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => higher-education-productivity-and-competitiveness-mariano-jabonero [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2020-10-28 12:52:59 [post_modified_gmt] => 2020-10-28 12:52:59 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.thedialogue.org/?p=101691 [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => post [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [2] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 101400 [post_author] => 66 [post_date] => 2020-10-14 19:28:14 [post_date_gmt] => 2020-10-14 19:28:14 [post_content] =>

Ensuring the quality of early education is critical for laying the foundation for the learning and development of all children in the region. The Regional Agenda for Integrated Early Childhood Development prioritizes the goal of achieving quality in early education. The second agreement of this Agenda calls on all countries to “strengthen efforts to achieve high-quality, relevant, timely, and comprehensive services targeted to reaching children in early childhood in the environments in which their lives unfold” and identifies the need to establish "quality assurance systems for governmental and non-governmental services for this population based on the expected holistic development of children.”

With the participation of Ministry and early education agencies representatives, experts and members of civil society and cooperation organizations, the Regional Forum on Quality in Early Education met virtually from May to July 2020 to agree upon common strategies and recommendations for attaining the objective of quality in early childhood education, as called for in the Regional Agenda.

Eight recommendations emerged from an intense process of dialogue and analysis of the experiences of the different countries in the region and the best available evidence. These recommendations are targeted not only to governments but also to the diverse actors involved at the national, local and regional levels in the creation and implementation of policies and programs for child development.

The Forum called on all the countries of the region to make sure there is a permanent participatory space with joint responsibility for setting and implementing an Agenda for Quality Early Childhood Education. This Agenda should consider a broad and relevant vision for quality in young children’s education, taking stock of the relationship between learning and holistic development, with emphasis on both structural and process quality.

In order to create such a vision for quality, countries can build upon a series of non-negotiables of Early Childhood Education (ECE) identified during the Forum. These non-negotiables include recognizing early childhood as a life stage with its own identity; guaranteeing relationships of care, love and protection in the educational space; and recognizing the critical role of learning through play to promote children’s holistic development.

Making this vision a reality will require the development of quality assurance systems, including a governance structure or an intersectoral collective body entrusted with quality assurance whose principal functions include designing quality standards for the provision of services that make it possible to guarantee equal learning opportunities that promote the holistic development of all children.

Quality assurance also demands that countries in the region develop mechanisms to institutionalize the measurement of the quality of early childhood education services. They need to develop a competency framework for those who work with children in early childhood, promoting a continuous and flexible system for training – both pre-service and in-service – and for certification of competencies that strengthens performance.

The Forum also considered it necessary to strengthen the systems and mechanisms for intersectoral work in each sector to promote and strengthen their shared responsibility for child development. Countries also need to generate and promote processes of social, cultural, and political mobilization in the various countries aimed at recognizing and dignifying the role of educators and caregivers who work with young children.

Finally, the Forum called on international organizations, governments in the region, academics, and civil society members to create a space for regional coordination and dialogue to help share knowledge and adopt frames of reference that inform public policies in the countries with the aim of ensuring quality services and reducing inequalities in early childhood.

We are excited about the progress made so far and for the journey ahead. Our organizations are committed to supporting this regional space, as well as the coalitions in favor of quality in early childhood education in each of the countries of the region.

ONLINE EVENT: Towards Quality Early Childhood Education – Results of the Regional Forum

On Wednesday, October 7, 2020 the Dialogue convened a webinar alongside the LEGO Foundation and Centro de Estudios Primera Infancia (CEPI) to present the Declaration of the Regional Forum: Towards Quality Early Childhood Education. This virtual panel featured Michael Shifter, president of the Inter-American Dialogue, Sarah Bouchie, vicepresident-head of Global Programs at LEGO Foundation, Ana María Nieto, early childhood specialist at LEGO Foundation, Jaime Saavedra, global director of education at the World Bank and Ariel Fiszbein, director of the education program at Inter-American Dialogue. 

Watch the recording of the webinar HERE:  

[embed width="768" height="432"]https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Cs1eTPzc8a8[/embed]

RELATED RESOURCES

Presentation by Jaime Saavedra, Global Director of Education, World Bank 

Presentation by Ariel Fiszbein and Ana María Nieto on the elements of Declaration

Declaration of the Regional Forum: Towards Quality Early Childhood Education

Second Regional Agenda Agreement 

[post_title] => Towards the Implementation of Quality Services in Latin America and the Caribbean [post_excerpt] => In this blog, we present the core elements necessary to implement the Declaration of the Regional Forum: Towards Quality Early Childhood Education in the region. [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => implementation-quality-services [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2021-07-02 13:30:26 [post_modified_gmt] => 2021-07-02 13:30:26 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.thedialogue.org/?p=101400 [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => post [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) )
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