Analysis on Migration, Remittances, and Development

The Inter-American Dialogue’s Migration, Remittances, and Development program provides expert analysis on migration and development, financial inclusion and remittances, and the money transfer marketplace. The following is a list of studies and publications the Dialogue has published since 2018 on these intersecting issues.

Taraciuk Broner: “Venezuela has been in crisis for a long time, but it has not always made headlines”

Photo of podcast in the Room

April 16, 2024 | Inter-American Dialogue | Interviews

Tamara Taraciuk Broner, director of the Rule of Law program, participated in the podcast “Where Did the Migrant Crisis Come From?” on In the Room with Peter Bergen. She discussed the context and causes of the Venezuelan humanitarian and migration crisis, as well as the use of the lifting of US sanctions as leverage for fair elections.

State Collapse and the Protection of Remittance Payments

Photo of the report cover for "State Collapse and the Protection of Remittance Payments."

April 9, 2024 | Inter-American Dialogue | Reports

On April 9, 2024, the Inter-American Dialogue released the report “State Collapse and the Protection of Remittance Payments.” The report, produced by Manuel Orozco, director of the Migration, Remittances, and Development program, and Patrick Springer, program associate, examines the extent to which the current crisis in Haiti can be characterized as state failure. The report examines state failure in Haiti, its effects on the daily lives of Haitians, the Haitian economy, and how it is impacting remittance systems in the country and concludes with a strategy for ensuring successful and safe remittance transfers to the Caribbean nation.

Perspectives on Remittances in 2024

Photo of Perspectives on Remittances in 2024 panel

April 5, 2024 | Inter-American Dialogue | Event Summaries

On February 16, 2024, the Inter-American Dialogue’s Migration, Remittances, and Development program invited representatives from across the remittance industry to discuss the potential for developments in the industry and to discuss their outlook for 2024.

Remittances to Cuba and the Marketplace in 2024

Photo of report cover for "Remittances to Cuba and the Marketplace in 2024

March 22, 2024 | Inter-American Dialogue | Reports

On March 22, 2024, the Inter-American Dialogue released the report “Remittances to Cuba and the Marketplace in 2024.” The report, produced by Manuel Orozco, director of the Migration, Remittances, and Development program, analyzes money transfers to Cuba, their changing composition, the evolution of origination regulation, and this evolution’s impact on the Cuban economy.

La economía de las remesas y el favoritismo económico del clan

Foto de gente en el mercado de Granada, Nicaragua

March 18, 2024 | Inter-American Dialogue | Articles & Op-Eds

En Nicaragua el estado de la economía está totalmente capturado por un régimen que se enriquece a costa del pueblo y el endeudamiento externo. En 2024, la  economía crecerá igual que en 2023 gracias a las remesas y los préstamos, pero en vez de distribución equitativa de la riqueza, lo que hay es concentración del dinero para los nuevos ricos del régimen.

Orozco: “La solución política que se está planteando en el corto plazo no va a resolver el éxodo migratorio”

Foto de Manuel Orozco y Gabriela Frías en CNN en Español

March 15, 2024 | Inter-American Dialogue | Interviews

En una entrevista con CNN en Español, Manuel Orozco, director del programa Migración, Remesas y Desarrollo del Diálogo Interamericano, conversó con Gabriela Frías sobre la crisis humanitaria en Haití, sus consecuencias migratorias y la respuesta del gobierno de los Estados Unidos frente a una nueva ola migratoria proyectada.

Transaction Costs and Money Transfer Operators – A Review of Costs by MTO Receiving Countries

Photo of report cover for Transaction Costs and Money Transfer Operators - A Review of Costs by MTO Receiving CountriesMarch 5, 2024 | Inter-American Dialogue | Reports |

On March 4, 2024, the Inter-American Dialogue released the report “Transaction Costs and Money Transfer Operators – A Review of Costs by MTO Receiving Countries.” The report, produced by Manuel Orozco, director of the Migration, Remittances, and Development program, and Patrick Springer, program associate, for the Inter-American Dialogue’s Remittance Industry Observatory (RIO) details remittance prices for over 12 remittance service providers (RSPs) in the region across a selection of nine key countries. In 2024, the cost to send US$200 to the region is 3.89 percent, while the cost to send US$400 is even lower at 3.22 percent.

Remittances and Development in Honduras – Bridging Opportunities

Photo of report cover for the report "Remittances and Development in Honduras: Bridging Opportunities"

February 28, 2024 | Inter-American Dialogue | Reports

On February 28, 2024, the Inter-American Dialogue released the report “Remittances and Development in Honduras – Bridging Opportunities.” The report, produced by Manuel Orozco, director of the Migration, Remittances, and Development program analyzes migration patterns, characterizes remittance recipients, and reports on key financial inclusion metrics in the country. The report concludes with a pathway that outlines a strategy for leveraging remittances for development in the country.

La migración latinoamericana a EEUU en 2024 y las proyecciones de Nicaragua

Foto de gente en fila esperando a las aduanasFebruary 19, 2024 | Inter-American Dialogue | Articles & Op-Eds

Dadas las complejidades a las que ha estado expuesta y enfrentada la sociedad moderna en América Latina y el Caribe, los principales temas a considerar sobre migración y remesas están conectados con las tendencias existentes que han ocurrido desde 2019. Los nicaragüenses estarán expuestos a una situación de vulnerabilidad, condición que afectará su capacidad de movilidad social, e incluso de envío de dinero.

Orozco: “Uno de 20 migrantes es un menor de edad”

Foto de la entrevista con Gabriela Frías

January 26, 2024 | Inter-American Dialogue | Interviews

En una entrevista con CNN en Español, Manuel Orozco, director del programa Migración, Remesas y Desarrollo del Diálogo Interamericano, conversó con Gabriela Frías sobre la crisis migratoria, sus consecuencias electorales en los EEUU y las tendencias y flujos migratorios entre otros temas.

¿Qué ofrece a las Américas Bukele, a quien Rosario Murillo llama “amigo y hermano”?

Foto de Nayib Bukele con el TSE

January 23, 2024 | El Diario de Hoy | Articles & Op-Eds

Nayib Bukele, el “amigo y hermano” como se refiere la dictadora de Nicaragua, Rosario Murillo, ahora ya es oficialmente candidato presidencial (aunque inconstitucionalmente) para reelegirse. Y va promocionando su candidatura con el mantra de haber logrado un gran cambio en su tierra salvatrucha, eliminando la violencia.

Prosperity and Progress in Intermediate Cities: Making Development Impacts through Remittances

Photo of Prosperity and Progress report cover

January 12, 2024 | Inter-American Dialogue | Reports |

On January 12, 2024, the Inter-American Dialogue released the report “Prosperity and Progress in Intermediate Cities: Making Development Impacts through Remittances.” The report, produced by Manuel Orozco, director of the Migration, Remittances, and Development program, Jaqueline Barrios, country coordinator for Guatemala, and Patrick Springer, program associate, reviews results and impacts of the program’s local development initiative in the Guatemalan municipalities of San Marcos, and Amatitlán.

The Pulse of Democracy in the Americas: Results of the 2023 AmericasBarometer

Panelist at the 2023 AmericasBarometer EventJanuary 4, 2024 | Inter-American Dialogue | Event Summaries | 

In collaboration with USAID, LAPOP Lab and Vanderbilt University, the Inter-American Dialogue co-hosted the highly anticipated launch of the 2023 AmericasBarometer report.

Orozco: “Nicaragua is responsible for at least 10 percent of all migration that has arrived into the Mexico-US border”

Photo of Manuel Orozco and All Things Considered GraphicJanuary 4, 2024 | NPR | Podcasts

On January 4, 2024, director of the Inter-American Dialogue’s Migration, Remittances, and Development program, Manuel Orozco, sat down with NPR’s Mary Louise Kelly on “All Things Considered” to discuss the recent weaponization of migration by the Ortega-Murillo regime. The two discussed the recent trend within the context of US elections in November 2024 in which immigration is a highly debated issue.

2023 in Remittances: The Year in Review

Photo of the report cover for 2023 in Remittances: The Year in ReviewDecember 22, 2023 | Inter-American Dialogue | Reports

On December 22, 2023, the Remittance Industry Observatory (RIO), of the Inter-American Dialogue, released it’s annual review of remittances in Latin America and the Caribbean. The report, produced by Manuel Orozco, director of the Migration, Remittances, and Development program, and Patrick Springer, program assistant, outline market trends, provide data on remittance service providers in the region, and contextualize these topics as they relate to 2023’s economic, political, and migration-related developments.

An Unprecedented Migration Crisis: Characterizing and Analyzing its Depth

Photo of cover page for "An Unprecedented Migration Crisis"November 28, 2023 | Inter-American Dialogue | Reports

This report offers a look at the current migration trends and points to large differences that characterize this situation as a crisis: the scale, composition, nature, and management of migration is outside conventional or historical patterns.

Orozco: “La gente está saliendo y votando con sus pies por las razones políticas que están ocurriendo en sus países”

Foto de Manuel Orozco en una entrevista con VPItvNovember 8, 2023 | VPItv | Interviews

El director del programa de Migración, Remesas y Desarollo del Diálogo Interamericano, Manuel Orozco, habló el 8 de noviembre, 2023 con la periodista Mayorie González de VPItv sobre cambios recientes en las tendencias migratorias de la región. Además de identificar que los migrantes provienen con más frecuencia de países donde se observan políticas de represión, resalta que los niños migrantes son los que salen con mayor intensidad.

La nueva ola migratoria a Estados Unidos

Foto de un hombre joven a la frontera México-Estados Unidos

November 8, 2023 | Confidencial | Articles & Op-Eds

La situación migratoria con la llegada de siete millones de personas desde 2020 a la frontera entre México y Estados Unidos, con siete mil personas a diario en 2023, clasifica como crisis. La manifestación de esta migración sobre el entorno es tan fuerte que su contención escapa al control y la capacidad de manejo de expertos y autoridades en Estados Unidos.

Family Remittances from Latin America and the Caribbean 2023: Outbound Transfers

Photo of multiple currencies

November 3, 2023 | Inter-American Dialogue | Presentations

On November 1, 2023, the Inter-American Dialogue released the presentation “Family Remittances from Latin America and the Caribbean 2023: Outbound Transfers” that contains research from Manuel Orozco, director of the Migration, Remittances, and Development program.

Orozco: “La capacidad de los estados de resolver los problemas de sus ciudadanos tanto en lo político como en lo económico se volvió muy difícil”

Foto de Manuel Orozco en una emisión de Razón de Estado TV

September 24, 2023 | Razón de Estado TV | Interviews

El 24 de septiembre, 2023, Manuel Orozco, director del Programa de Migración, Remesas y Desarrollo del Diálogo Interamericano conversó con Dionisio Gutiérrez en Razón Estado TV sobre las tendencias migratorias desde Centroamérica y sus fuentes.

Family Remittances to Latin America and the Caribbean 2023

Photo of Guatemalan Quetzales and Dollars

September 9, 2023 | Inter-American Dialogue | Presentations

Today, the Inter-American Dialogue’s Migration, Remittances, and Development Program releases the presentation “Family Remittances to Latin America and the Caribbean 2023.” In the presentation, the program’s director, Manuel Orozco, analyzes the latest remittance data available for the region.

The Scope of Transnational Economic Engagement in Latin America and the Caribbean

Photo of migrants crossing the Darien GapMay 31, 2023 | Inter-American Dialogue | Reports

The following memo from the Inter-American Dialogue’s Migration, Remittances, and Development program provides a thorough update of transnational economic engagement throughout Latin America and the Caribbean. Additionally, the memo outlines in detail the scale, composition, and nature and of migration in the region. Lastly, the memo concludes by offering four solutions for issues related to migration.

Understanding the Recent Growth in Remittances to MexicoPhoto of Mexican Pesos

May 25, 2023 | Inter-American Dialogue | Blogs

The following note reviews some of the factors driving recent growth. Typically, increases in remittances are due to increases in the principal sent (through frequency and amount remitted), or by increases in the number of senders (typically through migration).

Centroamérica dinámicas migratorias – CAP 2022-2023, Sesión 13

Photo of Manuel Orozco in Ciclos CAPMay 10, 2023 | Inter-American Dialogue | Podcasts

El 10 de Mayo, el director del Programa de Migración, Remesas y Desarollo, Manuel Orozco ofreció su análisis al programa Ciclos CAP sobre la última alza en remesas hacia México.

Orozco: “Aquí tenemos el desencuentro entre política migratoria y política exterior.”

Photo of Manuel Orozco talking with CNNMay 5, 2023 | Inter-American Dialogue | Interviews

El 28 de abril, Manuel Orozco, director del Programa de Migración, Remesas y Desarrollo del Diálogo Interamericano conversó con CNN sobre los flujos actuales de migración en la región y la política migratoria de los EEUU frente a ellos.

The Political Situation in Nicaragua and International Migration from the Crisis

May 4, 2023 | Inter-American DialoPhoto of the Placita de comidas típicas en Monimbó, Masayague | Podcasts

The following is a presentation from the Migration, Remittances, and Development Program that provides a robust overview of Nicaraguan migration in recent years, its drivers, and its impacts.

Orozco: “La principal razón por la que las remesas están creciendo es por la migración mexicana que crece.”

Photo of Broojula PodcastMay 3, 2023 | Inter-American Dialogue | Podcasts

Manuel Orozco ofreció su análisis al podcast Broojula del periódico El Universal sobre la última alza en remesas hacia México. En esta conversación con Ana Paula Ordorica, Orozco comento acerca de las razones detrás de este súbito crecimiento.

Venezuela:​ Remittances as a Source of Foreign Exchange and Economic Survival

Photo of migrants crossing the Colombian borderMay 2, 2023 | Inter-American Dialogue | Presentation

The following presentation from the Migration, Remittances, and Development Program’s Remittance Industry Observatory (RIO) features new data on remittances in Venezuela.

International Migration from Latin America & the Caribbean: In Numbers

 

Presentation Cover

 

April 11, 2023 | Inter-American Dialogue | Presentation

 

The Migration, Remittances, and Development Program published a presentation that delves deeply into how the scale, composition, and nature of migration in the Americas has changed drastically since 2015.

 

Family Remittances 2022 in Numbers

 

Presentation Cover

 

April 6, 2023 | Inter-American Dialogue

 

The Migration, Remittances, and Development Program presented a report addressing the continued increase of annual remittance trends associated to large migration patterns in 2022.

 

Pairing Migration Enforcement with Foreign Policy

 

Cover photo Pairing Migration Enforcement with Foreign Policy Report

February 15, 2023 | Inter-American Dialogue

 

The Biden administration’s new border enforcement actions may reduce some but not all migration from Cuba, Haiti, Nicaragua, and Venezuela. The measure may have the unintended result of marketing migration to those whose intention to do so was not as strong. This report recommends three differentiated steps the US should consider, including leveraging sanctions, working with the diaspora, and OAS engagement.

 

Haiti’s Turnaround and its Impact on Remittances

 

A man waits in the doorway of a New York City money transfer store used by many Haitians.

 

November 15, 2022 | Inter-American Dialogue

 

This blog examines the role of remittances on Haiti’s economy, pointing to a drop in flows in 2022 which may influence the economy as a result of less Haitians sending money. It also discusses its growing relevance over time, and the dependence on transfers from the US, while Haiti’s conditions deteriorate; hence it is crucial to provide support to its payment network and tie the flows to access to financial institutions.

 

Are Remittance Costs Coming Down in Latin America?

 

Photo of money changing hands

 

October 19, 2022 | Inter-American Dialogue

 

A Latin America Advisor Q&A featuring experts’ viewpoints on remittance costs in Latin America and the Caribbean.

 

Transaction Costs in the Post-Covid Era

 

Image of Mexican border with US

 

September 23, 2022 | Inter-American Dialogue

 

This blog examines remittance sending costs to eight Latin American and Caribbean countries and considers that the most important reality shaping the money transfer intermediation industry is that it is tied to a global currency market.

 

Migración, remesas y opciones de desarrollo para Guatemala

 

Photo of guatemalan migrants

 

September 3, 2022 | Inter-American Dialogue

 

Hay que tomar en serio la migración y las realidades que la hacen posible porque la salida de personas,sin respuestas sólidas y comprometidas con el progreso social, no solo continuará, pero no hará mejoraral país, aun y con las remesas que entran.

 

A New Strategic Approach for El Salvador’s Economic Development Challenges

 

Photo of market in El Salvador

 

August 22, 2022 | Inter-American Dialogue

 

El Salvador’s sluggish economy and outdated economic model present serious challenges for the future. Weak economic performance means that life is hard and opportunities are scarce for large portions of the population.

 

Sustained Remittance Growth in 2022

 

A man counts Somali shilling notes having just exchanged US Dollars with a money changer on the streets of the Somali capital Mogadishu.

 

July 29, 2022 | Inter-American Dialogue

 

In the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, remittances have become a much more important source of income for many people in Latin America and the Caribbean. We project a 14 percent growth rate in 2022 to nearly US$150 billion, equivalent to 5 percent of the gross domestic product in Latin American and the Caribbean countries.

 

Migrant Remittances to Central America and Options for Development

 

Cover of Migration Taskforce Report

 

July 28, 2022 |Inter-American Dialogue

 

The report recommends leveraging remittances through financial access, education, and investment in order to strengthen economic developments and reduce the need for Central Americans to migrate in the first place.

 

La migración y la democracia: alternativas entre la exclusión y expulsión

 

Cover of Migracion y la Democracia Report

 

July 25, 2022 | Inter-American Dialogue

 

Este informe presenta un análisis de las tendencias migratorias y el efecto que las condiciones políticas pueden tener en la movilización.

 

Thriving in San Marcos: Mainstreaming Migration for Development in Guatemala

 

Cover of Thriving in San Marcos Report

 

July 22, 2022 | Inter-American Dialogue

 

In this report, The Inter-American Dialogue is pleased to present the activities and results of the Thriving in San Marcos initiative, which offered an innovative approach to local migration management.

 

The Real Root Causes of the Central American Migration Crisis

 

Photo of Biden at Summit of the Americas

 

June 21, 2022 | Foreign Affairs

 

The number of migrants attempting to cross the border into the United States is already reaching record highs—and the number is expected to rise by late summer. Leaders from the countries that send the most people—Cuba, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras,  Nicaragua, and Venezuela—didn’t attend this month’s Summit of the Americas in Los Angeles. U.S. President Joe Biden didn’t extend an invitation to Cuba, Nicaragua, and Venezuela, citing their dictatorial regimes.

 

Will Cryptoassets Disrupt Remittances in Latin America?

 

Senders of remittances are increasingly using cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin. However, money transfers using cryptocurrencies remain a small part of the market. // File Photo: André François McKenzie via Unsplash.

 

May 3, 2022 | Inter-American Dialogue

 

A Financial Services Advisor Q&A featuring experts’ viewpoints on the effects of cryptoassets on remittances in Latin America.

 

Los migrantes nicaragüenses en Costa Rica: Vulnerabilidad e implicaciones de su integración

 

April 22, 2022 | Inter-American Dialogue

 

Este informe presenta los resultados de un estudio comparativo sobre nicaragüenses que llegaron a Costa Rica antes y después del periodo de la crisis política de abril 2018.

 

Family Remittances in 2021: Is Double-Digit Growth the New Normal?

 

March 29, 2022 | Inter-American Dialogue

 

This report provides a review of the trends that led to growth in family remittances in Latin America and the Caribbean in 2021. It points to a combination of factors that include increased migration, migrants prolonging their stay in the United States, use of digital transfers among others. It also introduces projections based on future migration and remittance sender changes in 2022. 

 

Economic Insecurity & Irregular Migration from El Salvador

 

December, 2021 | Creative Associates International

 

Building on Creative’s comprehensive work in the Northern Triangle on the intentions to migrate in 2019, this paper connects results from our follow-up survey of Salvadorans’ migration intentions with broader trends and analysis about migration from El Salvador

 

Thinking about the future of diasporas

 

September 29, 2021 | International Organization for Migration

 

A way to think about the future of diasporas begs addressing their presence in scope and depth in the global context. Diasporas are largely a by-product of human mobility and efforts of people to connect their identity to geography and to their ancestry. Such diaspora connections are likely to increase in the next ten years by virtue of continued migration, the need for globalized human capital and diasporas’ own influence on policy. (p.45-64)

 

Complex Migration Trends from Latin America and the Caribbean Amidst the Global Pandemic

 

September, 2021 | Creative Associates International

 

Amidst the global pandemic, migrants—particularly from Venezuela and Haiti—are going to Colombia, Chile, and Brazil. The root causes of current migration are more complex and include political crises, economic insecurity, violence, weak social protection systems, COVID-19 contagion, low vaccination rates, and natural disasters.

 

A Commitment to Family: Remittances and Covid-19

 

June 18, 2021 | Inter-American Dialogue

 

This report from the Migration, Remittances & Development Program presents the findings of a survey carried out with more than 1,000 US immigrants from eight Latin American and Caribbean nationalities during the Covid-19 pandemic. The study identifies critical aspects that shaped migrants’ experiences in 2020 and early 2021, and, importantly, the determinants of continuing to send money back home in times of crisis. 

 

Migration, the Economy and Remittances in Central America

 

March, 2021 | Creative Associates International

 

This memo offers an insight about the impact of the global pandemic and devastating hurricanes Eta and Iota. We present data on individuals’ intentions to migrate in Guatemala and Honduras. Creative Associates International’s 2019 Saliendo Adelante study revealed that three key factors drove migration intentions—transnational ties, economic situation and victimization.

 

Venezuelan Immigration Trends, Challenges, and Possibilities for Integration

 

2021 | Creative Associates International

 

This memo presents an analysis of Venezuelan migrants in Colombia, looking at their characterization, condition, and transnational ties. 

 

International Migration Post-COVID

 

October, 2020 | Creative Associates International

 

This analysis demonstrates trends in migration and statistical correlations with key economic, social, and economic indicators. It identifies the characteristics of countries with migration dependence and identifies possible triggers of post-COVID migration patterns.

 

Money Transfers to Venezuela

 

May 1, 2020 | Inter-American Dialogue

 

This report by the Inter-American Dialogue’s Migration, Remittances and Development Program offers an overview of how foreign currency regulations affect money transfers to Venezuela in addition to describing and explaining Venezuelan migrant remitting behavior in six migrant host countries. It also provides an estimate of the aggregate volume of remittances sent to Venezuela.

 

Impact of Migrants’ Remittances and Investment on Rural Youth

 

December 12, 2019 | Inter-American Dialogue

 

In an increasingly globalized world community, rural international migration is often characterized by engagements or links that migrants establish with their home countries, home towns and relatives in their country of origin through transnational economic and social activities. This background paper analyses how migrants positively contribute to the sustainable economic development of rural youth in their countries of origin. Specifically, this paper details migrants’ contribution to youth rural development through transnational economic engagement, which positively impacts financial inclusion, creation of employment opportunities and the promotion of entrepreneurship.

 

Latin American and Caribbean Migration from Weak and Failing States

 

July, 2019 | Inter-American Dialogue

 

International human mobility from the Americas has increased dramatically to at least 40 million people in 2018, from 23 million in 2000. These migration flows respond to global demands for low skilled foreign labor. They also respond to political challenges related to state fragility.

 

Central American Migration: Current Changes and Development Implications

 

November 6, 2018 | Inter-American Dialogue

 

This report from the Migration, Remittances and Development Program analyzes recent trends in Central American migration, starting with a brief historical context and moving on to current developments. It considers geographical divisions, reasons for migrating, and growth in the overall migrant population. Finally, it considers implications of these current trends for Central American countries.

 

Towards an Adjustment of Status for Salvadorans with TPS

 

February 16, 2018 | Inter-American Dialogue

 

In January, 2018 the US government announced that it will not renew Temporary Protected Status (TPS) for Salvadorans. Salvadorans with TPS have 18 months, or until September 2019, to either leave the country or try to make other arrangements. This note will explore the consequences of this decision and offer several proposals for avoiding or mitigating the potential harm to Salvadorans currently protected by TPS.