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November 26, 2014: What Will Result From Obama's Immigration Policy Action?
By Peter Hakim, Dan Stein, Arturo Sarukhan, Louis DiSipio
Source: Latin America Advisor
Q: U.S. President Barack Obama last week announced a plan to protect as many as five million undocumented immigrants from deportation. Obama's plan has drawn sharp criticism from Republican lawmakers who accuse him of overstepping his authority as president. How will Obama's action affect U.S. relations with Latin American countries? Will Obama's move spur Congress to pass its own immigration reform, or will lawmakers focus on fighting the president's actions? What are the implications for businesses in the United States and Latin America?

November 18, 2014: How Interested Are Companies in Investing in Cuba?
By Matthew Aho, José R. Cárdenas, Scott J. Morgenstern, Carlos Saladrigas
Cuba's government on Nov. 3 asked international companies to invest more than $8 billion in the Caribbean island nation. The country's foreign commerce minister expressed hopes that the 246 projects being pitched by the government, ranging from an auto plant to a hog farm, would help spur Cuba's flagging economy. How interested are international companies in investing in Cuba? What benefits and drawbacks will companies encounter in investing there? What results have come from Cuba's four-year-old economic reform process?

November 14, 2014: ¿Debería hacerse algo para mejorar el sistema internacional de derechos humanos?
By Sonia Picado
Source: Latin America Advisor
República Dominicana se retiró de la Corte Interamericana de Derechos Humanos a principios de noviembre, apenas unas semanas luego de que el tribunal irritara al gobierno con un fallo apuntando que discrimina a personas dominicanas de ascendencia haitiana. Otros dos países, Trinidad y Tobago y Venezuela, también se han retirado de la corte poco después de fallos con los que sus gobiernos no estaban de acuerdo. ¿Qué tan efectivos pueden ser los órganos judiciales internacionales si el cumplimiento es voluntario y los países pueden simplemente retirarse cuando no están de acuerdo? ¿Debería hacerse algo para mejorar el sistema, o es su desempeño el que se esperaba?

November 6, 2014: What Does New Leadership Mean at Argentina's Central Bank?
By José Octavio Bordón, Claudio Loser, Nicolas Parrondo, Daniel Artana
Source: Latin America Advisor
Argentine President Cristina Fernández de Kirchner last month accepted the resignation of central bank governor Juan Carlos Fábrega, naming the head of the securities and exchange regulator, Alejandro Vanoli, to replace him. In a speech the day before Fábrega's resignation, Fernández had accused central bank employees of helping currency speculators. What was behind Fábrega's resignation? What sort of central bank will Vanoli run? How will Argentina's long-brewing currency woes play out?

October 28, 2014: A Close Finish Results in Four More Years for Dilma
By David Fleischer
Source: Latin America Advisor
On Sunday, Brazilians returned to the polls for the second-round runoff elections—for president and governors in 14 states. Because Brazil now has four time zones, the presidential election tally was released after 8 p.m. Brasília time. However, the results of the gubernatorial elections were released before 8 p.m.

October 24, 2014: What Are the Most Critical Issues Facing the Region's Women?
By Joan Caivano, Jacqueline Pitanguy, Maria de los Ángeles Fernández R.
Source: Latin America Advisor
For the second year in a row, people in Latin America are less likely to say they live in countries where women are treated with respect and dignity than people in any other region, according to a recent Gallup survey. A median of 35 percent of adults across 22 Latin American countries said women are treated with respect in their nations, about half as high as percentages in any other region, Gallup said, though the figure disguises wide differences between countries. How are women faring in Latin America, and what are the most important issues facing women in the region? Where has progress been made and how has that been achieved? What more needs to be done to promote gender equality?

October 15, 2014: Will Latin America Be Able to Solve its Infrastructure Problem?
By Mike Murkowski, Gabriel Goldschmidt, Mary Rose Brusewitz
Source: Latin America Advisor
Over the next decade, there is $900 billion in planned public and private investment for infrastructure in Brazil, while other countries are also spending billions of dollars on roads, airports and other public works projects. Still, some businesses that rely on modern logistics systems say planned projects aren't enough to meet their needs. Where is the greatest demand for improved infrastructure in the region, and how well do current plans address those needs? Has money already committed on infrastructure projects been spent wisely? Does the region have adequate engineering talent and other human capital for needed projects? Can a country spend too much on infrastructure?

October 14, 2014: What Should Bolivians Expect From a Third Morales Term?
By Miguel Centellas, César Arias, Jaime Aparicio, Kathryn Ledebur, Delfina Cavanagh, Roberto Laserna
Source: Latin America Advisor
Bolivian President Evo Morales won re-election on Sunday, Oct. 12 with an estimated 60 percent of the vote. What can investors expect from another Morales administration? What do Sunday's legislative election results suggest about Morales' governing strength and maneuverability moving ahead? Will anticipated lower prices for natural gas, an important export commodity for Bolivia, undermine the recent momentum in the economy? What economic priorities would you advise Morales to set for his next term?

September 29, 2014: ¿Qué deberían hacer los gobiernos y los organismos internacionales para afrontar la crisis de sequía?
By Miguel Barreto
Source: Latin America Advisor
Una grave sequía ha destruido cultivos en América Central, donde hasta 2,8 millones de personas están luchando para alimentarse, dijo que el Programa Mundial de Alimentos de las Naciones Unidas el 29 de agosto. El sur de Guatemala, el norte de Honduras y el oeste de El Salvador se han visto especialmente afectados. ¿Qué deberían hacer los gobiernos de esos países y los organismos internacionales para afrontar la crisis? ¿Cómo afectará la sequía a las economías de los países centroamericanos involucrados? ¿Qué debe hacerse para evitar este tipo de crisis en el futuro?

August 24, 2014: Dilma Rousseff está debilitada
By Andrew Gunther, Bret Rosen, Margaret Hayes, David Ross, Carlos Biedermann
Source: Latin America Advisor / Excelsior (Mexico)
Datos recientes sugieren que la economía de Brasil enfrenta un periodo difícil, con la erosión de la confianza empresarial y de algunos sectores y la caída en la recesión, así como los desafíos externos, como la desaceleración del crecimiento de China y los problemas económicos en la vecina Argentina. Aunque Brasil tiene un buen acceso al financiamiento internacional, la cantidad de capital necesario para sus grandes proyectos de infraestructura sigue siendo enorme. A la luz de estos desafíos ¿cuál es el panorama para la inversión en Brasil, y cómo se podrían financiar las necesidades de infraestructura del país? ¿Qué propuestas económicas de los candidatos presidenciales están resonando con los votantes antes de las elecciones de octubre? ¿Cómo el resultado de la carrera afectará el sentimiento de los inversionistas?

August 20, 2014: Cristina Lizardo, Dominican Republic's First Female Senate President
By Megan Cook
Source: Latin America Advisor
A profile of Cristina Lizardo, the Dominican Republic's first female Senate President

August 15, 2014: How Will Eduardo Campos' Death Affect Brazil's Presidential Race?
By Peter Hakim, Joel Korn, David Fleischer, Riordan Roett, Gilberto Rodrigues
Source: Latin America Advisor
Brazilian presidential candidate Eduardo Campos was killed when his private jet crashed Wednesday as it prepared to land in the city of Santos. Campos' death sent shockwaves through the country's political world and rattled financial markets just two months ahead of Brazil's October presidential election. What effects will Campos' sudden death have on the race, including any potential runoff?

August 12, 2014: Violence Driving Migration of Children to United States: Report
By Megan Cook
Source: Latin America Advisor
Violence is "the most powerful, immediate driver" of the increase of unaccompanied minors migrating to the United States from Central America, according to a report released Monday by the Inter-American Dialogue. Tens of thousands of children, mainly from El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras, have been apprehended at the U.S. border over the past year, prompting debate over the causes and appropriate responses in the United States and Central America.

August 5, 2014: Is Latin America Meeting the Millennium Development Goals?
By George Gray Molina, Alejandra Kubitschek Bujones, Paula Lucci and Ronaldo Munck
Source: Latin America Advisor
The United Nations in 2000 established the Millennium Development Goals, eight targets for poverty reduction and development for countries to achieve by the end of 2015. How successful have Latin America and the Caribbean been in reaching the goals, and where have they fallen short? With governments now debating a series of sustainable development goals for the post-2015 agenda, what should be included? How useful are these kind of broad targets as measurements of progress in the region?

July 17, 2014: What Will COP20 Mean for Climate Change & Energy?
By Timmons Roberts, Lisa Viscidi, Milena Gonzalez, Ramiro Fernández and Ana R. Ríos
The United Nations Climate Change Conference, COP20, will be held this December in Lima, Peru. The meeting is intended to promote dialogue among member countries and produce a draft text for a climate deal on reducing greenhouse gas emissions for the meeting in Paris next year. What are the opportunities for progress and regional cooperation on climate change in the Americas? What do you expect to happen at the conference, and what does it mean for the region's energy sector moving forward?

July 11, 2014: ¿Qué debería hacerse respecto a los niños migrantes no acompañados?
By Nicolas Mariscal, Gretchen Kuhner, Carlos Arrazola, Arturo Sarukhan, Dan Stein, Robert Kaplan
Source: Latin America Advisor
Q: El gobierno de EE.UU. dice que sus agentes han detenido este año fiscal cerca de 52.000 niños no acompañados en la frontera sur, el doble del número 2013. Citando los altos costos de enfrentar el influjo, la diputada Rep. Candice Miller (R-Mich.) sugirió el mes pasado suspender la ayuda y derogar los acuerdos de libre comercio con México y los países centroamericanos para obligarlos a hacer más, mientras que otros líderes del Congreso bautizaron el problema como una crisis humanitaria. ¿Qué hay detrás del aumento de niños no acompañados que cruzan la frontera? ¿Qué deben hacer los Estados Unidos y los países de origen hacer sobre la situación? ¿Que tan seriamente afecta las relaciones entre Estados Unidos y sus vecinos?

July 9, 2014: What Should Be Done About Unaccompanied Child Migrants?
By Arturo Sarukhan, Dan Stein, Gretchen Kuhner, Robert N. Kaplan, Carlos Arrazola
Source: Latin America Advisor
The U.S. government says its agents have picked up some 52,000 unaccompanied children at the southern border this fiscal year, twice the 2013 number. Citing the high costs of dealing with the influx, Rep. Candice Miller (R-Mich.) last month suggested cutting off aid and repealing free-trade agreements with Mexico and Central American countries to spur them to do more, while other congressional leaders cast the issue as a humanitarian crisis. What is behind the spike in unaccompanied children crossing the border? What should the United States and countries of origin do about the situation? How seriously is the issue affecting relations between the United States and its neighbors?

July 3, 2014: How Should Colombia Handle Oil and Mining Royalties?
By Lisa Viscidi, Juan Mauricio Ramírez,Andrés Mejía Vergnaud
Colombian President Juan Manuel Santos in mid-June announced that he will propose to Congress changes to a 2011 law that centralized oil and mining revenues. What was behind Santos' decision to propose changes, and why are some Colombians opposed the 2011 law? Will the changes likely win approval? What are the challenges and best policies for managing Colombia's oil and mining revenues?

June 20, 2014: Ecuador: ¿Es probable que se apruebe la enmienda constitucional?
By Felipe Burbano, Patricia de la Torre, César Montúfar
Source: Latin America Advisor
El presidente ecuatoriano, Rafael Correa, dijo recientemente que pedirá a los miembros de la mayoría legislativa de su partido aprobar una enmienda constitucional que permitiría la reelección indefinida para todos los políticos en el país. Correa, cuyo mandato expira en 2017, no ha dicho si él buscaría la reelección. ¿Es probable que se apruebe la enmienda constitucional? ¿Qué hay detrás de la decisión de Correa para impulsar este cambio ahora? ¿Son los límites del término constitucional una práctica buena o mala?

June 18, 2014: What Does Cantor's Loss Mean for U.S. Immigration Reform?
By Jim Kolbe, Arturo Sarukhan, George Grayson, G. Philip Hughes
Source: Latin America Advisor
U.S. House of Representatives majority leader Eric Cantor (R-Va.) last week suffered a high-profile primary loss to opponent Dave Brat with some attributing Cantor's loss partially to his stance on immigration reform, which Brat attacked as supporting "amnesty" for illegal immigrants. How important of a role did Cantor's stance on immigration play in his defeat? What does his loss mean for the prospects of immigration reform moving forward? Will other Republicans now be more reluctant to support a comprehensive reform measure?

June 11, 2014: Will the World Cup Be a Boom or a Bust for Brazil?
By Thomas Rideg, Ben Supple, Joel Korn
Source: Latin America Advisor
While it was originally expected that infrastructure investments and World Cup-related tourism would boost Brazil's economy, a recent Banco Santander report cast doubt on the effects that the sporting event, which begins Thursday, will have on Brazil's economy, noting that hotels and restaurants are expecting a slowdown and that additional holidays taken by Brazilians may dampen economic growth. How is the World Cup affecting Brazil's economy, and will it have an overall negative or positive effect? Will infrastructure investments made for the Cup succeed in promoting long-term growth?

June 5, 2014: ¿Está Guatemala perdiendo terreno en la lucha contra la impunidad?
By Alfred Kaltschmitt, Víctor Gálvez Borrell, Carlos Sabino, Mario Polanco
Source: Latin America Advisor
Guatemala retrocede en la lucha por justicia para las víctimas de 'crímenes contra la humanidad y genocidio' ocurridos durante la guerra civil del país, ha dicho Amnistía Internacional a finales de mayo. El grupo de derechos humanos señaló una resolución no vinculante aprobada por el Congreso de la nación que niega que haya ocurrido genocidio alguno en el país y que anuló la condena del ex presidente Efraín Ríos Montt, dada el año pasado. ¿Está Guatemala perdiendo terreno en la lucha contra la impunidad, y de ser así, ¿qué se debe hacer para revertir esta tendencia? Con el nuevo fiscal general, quien asumió el cargo el 17 de mayo, ¿qué perspectivas de mejora existen para el sistema de justicia del país y el enjuiciamiento de los casos relacionados con violaciones de derechos humanos?

May 27, 2014: Colombia: ¿Fue el segundo lugar un revés para la campaña de Santos?
By Fernando Cepeda Ulloa
Source: Latin America Advisor
El domingo, Óscar Iván Zuluaga ganó más votos que el presidente Juan Manuel Santos en la primera vuelta de las elecciones presidenciales de Colombia. Ya que ninguno de los candidatos alcanzó la mayoría requerida por ley para ser electo, los dos se enfrentarán en una segunda vuelta en junio. ¿Fue el segundo lugar un revés para la campaña de Santos?¿Qué temas resonaron más con los votantes el domingo y por qué ha caído el apoyo a Santos? ¿ Qué dicen estos resultados acerca de la percepción que tienen los colombianos de las negociaciones de paz con las FARC? ¿Una victoria de Zuluaga el próximo mes significaría el fin de las negociaciones? ¿Quién ganará el 15 de junio?

May 16, 2014: Does Rousseff Have Enough Support to Win Re-Election?
By Roberto Teixeira da Costa, Gilberto Rodrigues, Melvin Levitsky, Joel Korn
Source: Latin America Advisor
Brazilian President Dilma Rousseff announced April 30 that her government would increase payments to the poor through the Bolsa Família welfare program and also would lower some income taxes. The announcement came as Rousseff tries to reverse slipping support ahead of the October presidential election in which she is seeking another term in office. How much support will the announcement win for Rousseff at the polls? What else must she do in order to strengthen her candidacy? What factors between now and October will influence the election? How are Rousseff's rival presidential candidates faring ahead of the vote?

May 15, 2014: Is Chavismo Coming to an End in Venezuela?
By Otto Reich, Michael Shifter, Daniel Hellinger, David Smilde
Source: Latin America Advisor
A Datanalisis survey published May 5 by El Universal showed growing impatience among Venezuelans for President Nicolás Maduro's government. Sixty percent of those surveyed disapproved of Maduro's administration, while 80 percent thought the country was going in the wrong direction. What factors are driving those poll numbers, and will Maduro continue losing support among Venezuelans? Might he be forced out of office before his term is scheduled to expire in 2019? Is Chavismo coming to an end, and what would most likely replace it?

May 14, 2014: Uruguay's Mujica Touts Education Ties, Defends Marijuana Market
By Megan Cook
Source: Latin America Advisor
Uruguayan President José Mujica on Tuesday called on professors from the United States to teach in Uruguay and defended his country's creation of a legal marijuana market. Speaking at American University to an audience comprised mainly of students, Mujica also shared his vision of a world that is becoming more globalized and bilingual.

May 13, 2014: Special Technology Edition of the Latin America Advisor (PDF)
By Pedro Less-Andrade, Richard Hill, Maria Medrano and others
Source: Latin America Advisor
Latin American leaders have taken prominent positions in debates that are shaping the future of the Internet. And while the region’s growing middle class has been adopting new technologies at a rapid rate, concerns over cybercrime threats in Latin America and the Caribbean are reaching new heights. The attached special technology edition of the Advisor offers viewpoints on these trends from six stakeholders and experts, as well as recent news in telecommunications, biotechnology and venture capital.

May 6, 2014: What Does Varela's Election as President Mean for Panama?
By Joaquin Jacome Diez, Joydeep Mukherji, Jaime Figueroa and Eric Jackson
Source: Latin America Advisor
Juan Carlos Varela, Panama's vice president, was elected to the country's presidency on Sunday, defeating President Ricardo Martinelli's preferred candidate, José Domingo Arias, and former Panama City Mayor Juan Carlos Navarro. What factors propelled Varela to victory? What will be Varela's biggest challenges after taking office July 1? What does his election mean for businesses in Panama?

April 17, 2014: What Will Be the Fallout From the 'Cuban Twitter' Revelations?
By Roger Noriega, Josefina Vidal Ferreiro, Peter Hakim, Matthew Aho
Source: Latin America Advisor
The U.S. Agency for International Development created and operated "ZunZuneo," a communications network similar to Twitter that had the aim of destabilizing the Cuban government, the Associated Press reported on April 3. USAID responded by saying the purpose of the program was "to create a platform for Cubans to speak freely among themselves, period," while the White House denied that it was a covert program. How much of an impact will the revelations have on U.S.-Cuban relations? What does the controversy mean for bilateral issues such as the imprisonment in Cuba of former U.S. government contractor Alan Gross? Are social media programs such as these a good use of USAID funding and the U.S. government's resources?

April 2, 2014: What Challenges Face Costa Rica's Next President?
By José Antonio Muñoz, Kevin Casas-Zamora, and Laura Porras
Source: Latin America Advisor
What are the biggest challenges facing Costa Rica's new leader, Luis Guillermo Solís? What types of policy changes can be expected from his administration? To what extent will he succeed in working with Costa Rica's business community?

March 25, 2014: Massa dijo que no quiere relaciones carnales con EE.UU.
By Paula Lugones, El Clarín
En el auditorio de la avenida Connecticut reinaba cierta expectativa. A pesar de la inusual nevada primaveral que azotó a Washington ayer, empresarios, politólogos, académicos y periodistas se fueron acomodando en un salón donde hubo gente que quedó de pie. El invitado fue Sergio Massa, quien dijo entre otras cosas que su Frente Renovador rechaza una política de “relaciones carnales” con este país.

March 21, 2014: Is Brazil's Petrobras on the Right Track?
By Theodore M. Helms, Lisa Viscidi, João Augusto de Castro Neves, and Francisco Ebeling Barros
Source: Latin America Advisor
Despite profits up 11 percent last year, Brazilian state oil company Petrobras reported last month that its fourth quarter net profit was down 19 percent year-on-year, adding that it will cut its investment plan through 2018 by 7 percent. More bad news came last week when lawmakers decided to install a special congressional committee to probe allegations of bribery involving Petrobras employees and a foreign company. How bad is Petrobras' situation today, and what bright spots are on the horizon? How big of a role is the government and politics playing in the company's present circumstances, and what policy changes would improve the outlook for Petrobras moving forward?

March 12, 2014: What Can the Middle East & Latin America Offer Each Other?
By R. Evan Ellis, Cecilia Baeza, and Cecilia Porras Eraso
Source: Latin America Advisor
What is behind increasing engagement between the Middle East and Latin America? What do the regions have to offer each other economically? What businesses stand to gain from stronger ties?

February 26, 2014: Will Venezuela's Deadly Protests Spin Out of Control?
By Michael Shifter, Peter Winn and David Smilde
Source: Latin America Advisor
Deadly protests, the largest since President Nicolás Maduro's election last year, have wracked Venezuela in recent weeks. The demonstrations were punctuated on Feb. 18 by the arrest of opposition leader Leopoldo López, who had been organizing the protests. Why did these protests erupt now, and why did they turn deadly this time? Does the situation pose a threat to Maduro's government? How will López's jailing affect the opposition?

February 21, 2014: In Which Direction Is Paraguay's Economy Headed?
By Sebastián Acha, Donald Richards, Brian Turner and Dominica Zavala
Paraguay has recently won accolades from international investors for its passage of a law that could reduce infrastructure bottlenecks as well as its approval of a fiscal responsibility law. To what extent will Paraguay's economic moves benefit the country? What could derail the country's growth? How would you rate President Horacio Cartes' handling of the economy since taking office last August?

February 19, 2014: Why has the level of remittances to the region stagnated?
By Manuel Orozco, Earl Jarrett, Mario Trujillo and Hugo Cuevas Mohr
Source: Latin America Advisor
Overall remittances to Latin America and the Caribbean were flat in 2013 as compared to 2012, according to a new report by the Inter-American Dialogue. A few countries, including Bolivia, Honduras and Guatemala, saw significant growth, but several others like Jamaica or El Salvador saw no growth, while remittances decreased to countries including Mexico and Brazil. What is behind the stagnant remittances to the region? Which countries' economies will feel the most pain? Will the current trends continue?

January 31, 2014: How Important Is U.S. Fast-Track Authority for Trade Deals?
By Peter Hakim, Cameron T. Combs, Arturo Sarukhan, and James R. Jones
Source: Latin America Advisor
U.S. Senators Baucus and Hatch and Rep. Camp introduced a bipartisan Trade Promotion Authority bill that would give the president the authority to negotiate trade accords that Congress would then be able to approve or reject, but not amend. How important is fast-track authority for pending trade deals?

January 23, 2014: What Is Behind the Problems in Latin America's Prisons?
By Benjamin Lessing, Julita Lemgruber and Pien Metaal
The United Nations' human rights agency called earlier this month for a probe into violence at the overcrowded Pedrinhas penitentiary in Brazil's Maranhão state after a violent video was posted showing inmates gloating over the decapitated bodies of three other inmates. Overcrowding and violence are common problems at prisons in Brazil and elsewhere in Latin America. What is behind the problems at Latin America's prisons, and what kinds of reforms are needed? What's been standing in their way?

December 20, 2013: What Does 2014 Hold for U.S.-Latin America Relations?
By Arturo Sarukhán, Rubens Barbosa, Peter Hakim, Julia Buxton, and Riordan Roett
Source: Latin America Advisor
What lies ahead for U.S.-Latin America relations in the coming year? To what extent will the Obama administration seek to strengthen ties in the region? How much will Latin American countries want to work with the United States?

December 4, 2013: A Celebration of US-Mexico Relations
By Humberto Galvan
San Antonio Mayor Julian Castro and former president of Mexico Ernesto Zedillo spoke on Monday, December 2nd at the Mexican Cultural Institute in Washington during a private dinner with the Inter-American Dialogue’s Board of Directors.

December 4, 2013: A Conversation with Colombian President Juan Manuel Santos
By Humberto Galvan
The Dialogue’s Board of Directors met with Colombian President Juan Manuel Santos moments before his White House meeting with US President Barack Obama and ahead of the Board's biannual meeting. Members discussed the wide-ranging challenges facing Colombia and the region. The conversation was closed and off-the-record.

September 19, 2013: Negative Perceptions of Mexico Hurting U.S. Policy: Ambassador
By Megan Cook
Mexico's ambassador to the United States last Friday lambasted Hollywood for its negative portrayal of Mexicans in popular culture, asserting that an inaccurate perception of Mexicans is hurting the chances for passing meaningful U.S. immigration reforms and improving trade policy.

August 29, 2013: How Are Changing Demographics Affecting Latin America?
By Paulo Saad, John Price, and Daniel Cotlear
Source: Latin America Advisor
From 2010 to 2020, the number of working-age Latin Americans will grow by more than 40 million people yet by 2050, several large Latin American countries may have older populations than the US. What factors are driving demographic trends in Latin America and the Caribbean?

August 19, 2013: Can Technology Help Quell Citizens' Anger at Their Governments?
By Juan Rada, Miguel A. Porrúa, Mike Mora, Beatrice Rangel, and Andres Maz
Source: Latin America Advisor
As government funding for public services comes under strain, elected officials and disgruntled citizens are increasingly looking to new technologies to both deliver services and express priorities and demands. What are the best practices for engaging citizens in the region through technology?

August 8, 2013: How Important Is Chinese Lending to Latin America?
By Margaret Myers, Sun Hongbo, Matt Ferchen, and Erik Bethel
Source: Latin America Advisor
Chinese lending to Latin America and the Caribbean hit an all-time high of $37 billion in 2010. But China's lending to the region has plummeted since then, to approximately $6.8 billion in 2012, according to data recently compiled by the Inter-American Dialogue. The drop-off was attributed mainly to a decline in Chinese lending to Venezuela. How important is Chinese lending to the region today? What does the decline in funding from China mean for Venezuela and the region as a whole? What will the future hold for Chinese lending to Latin America and the Caribbean?

August 1, 2013: A Meeting of the Dialogue’s Corporate Circle
By Erik Brand
Craig Kelly of ExxonMobil and David Nelson of General Electric, both former ambassadors to countries in the region, led off a roundtable discussion with members of the Inter-American Dialogue’s Corporate Circle.

July 3, 2013: What's Really Behind South America's Wave of Street Protests?
By Henrique Rzezinski, Moisés Naím, Peter Hakim, and Moises Arce
Source: Latin America Advisor
A wave of street protests and strikes that broke out this month across Latin America took some officials and observers by surprise. Are these protests isolated events with unique causes or are there threads that unify them?

June 4, 2013: What Trends Have Been Driving Investment in the Region?
By Roberto Baquerizo, Alfredo Coutiño, Luis Oganes, and Lisa M. Schineller
Source: Latin America Advisor
Latin America and the Caribbean received a record $173.36 billion of foreign direct investment last year, a 6.7 percent increase from 2011, according to data released May 14 by the United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean. What factors and global trends have been driving these investments? Which countries fared best, and worst, in attracting foreign investment, and why? Will FDI in 2013 and 2014 continue to gain steam?

May 29, 2013: Is Freedom of the Press in Danger in Latin America?
By Luis Manuel Botello, Horacio Verbitsky, and Carlos Lauría
Source: Latin America Advisor
Concerns about press freedom in the Americas have been in the headlines recently. In Colombia, authorities have warned the public of a plot by an organized crime group to kill several high-profile journalists. In Argentina, opposition leader and Buenos Aires City Mayor Mauricio Macri signed a decree "to guarantee protection to journalists and media in the city" as the government's ongoing dispute with country's largest media company has intensified. In Venezuela, the last major opposition television station was sold to investors believed to be friendly with the administration President Nicolás Maduro. What do these developments say about press freedom in the Americas? What are the most important trends that stakeholders (government, businesses, civil society) need to pay attention to? How has the evolution of social media and wider access to the Internet and communications technologies changed the debate over freedom of the press?

May 2, 2013: Do the Downsides of Remittance Flows Outweigh the Positives?
By Manuel Orozco, Dan Stein, and Earl Jarrett
Some critics of immigrant workers in the United States complain they send wages home to their families, draining local communities in which they reside of economic vitality that would be retained with domestic workers. Meanwhile, some people in Latin American countries that receive remittances complain that brain drain through emigration has gutted their human capital base and that the transfers distort local economic activity, leaving their societies dependent upon remittances. Are these criticisms of money transfers valid? Do the downsides of remittances outweigh the positives? How has the role of remittances in economic development changed in recent years for both sending and receiving countries?

February 28, 2013: What will Correa's 'legislative steamroller' bring Ecuador?
By Osvaldo Hurtado, Nathalie Cely, Ramiro Crespo and Marc Becker
After trouncing his opponents to win re-election as Ecuador's president earlier this month, Rafael Correa vowed that his government would be a "legislative steamroller" that would make his administration's socialist reforms permanent. What are the most significant reforms that will come out of Correa's new term? Will Correa respect the rights of the opposition as he has promised? How will Correa's presidency affect Ecuador in the long term?

February 20, 2013: What Does Mexico's Educational System Need to Improve?
By Reyes Tamaz Guerra, Jeffrey Puryear, Lucrecia Santibanez, Nicolas Mariscal
Billionaire Carlos Slim announced last month he is investing more than $300 million in connectivity, digital libraries and equipment for schools in Mexico. Beyond that, Slim is also underwriting translation of Khan Academy online course videos into Spanish, with a goal of having 1,000 videos translated by April. Is Slim's investment the sort of infusion that Mexico's school systems most need? Will it make a difference in addressing low levels of learning and widespread inequality in educational opportunity? Will other businesspeople in Mexico become more engaged in the country's schools, following Slim's example? How does Slim's initiative fit with the larger reforms to the education system announced by the Peña Nieto government?

February 11, 2013: Will new U.S. immigration reform pass Congress by July?
By the Inter-American Dialogue's daily Latin America Advisor
U.S. President Barack Obama said Jan. 30 that he wants Congress to pass an immigration system overhaul in the first half of this year. Obama's comments came a day after he presented his plan for immigration reform and just after a bipartisan group of senators presented their own plan. What stands in the way of passing the legislation before July? Are the immigration reforms that would get through Congress likely to be significant enough to change the status quo? How might U.S. action on immigration affect the country's relations with Mexico and other Latin American nations?

January 8, 2013: Which Issues Will Define the Brazil-Mexico Agenda?
By Peter Hakim, Rubens Barbosa, Ruben Olmos, Joel Korn
Brazilian President Dilma Rousseff is planning to visit Mexico this year, likely in March, Reuters has reported. The two countries have been at odds in recent months over an automobile trade dispute, but there are some indications that trade relations may improve. What are the key issues that will define their bilateral agenda in the near term?

December 18, 2012: Science, Technology, and Innovation Policies in Brazil
By Alexandra Bobak
Discussion oh challenges to innovation and more robust economic growth in Brazil.

November 15, 2012: New U.S. Drug Laws Create 'Huge Problem' for Mexico: Ambassador
By Rachel Sadon
Source: Latin America Advisor
The legalization of recreational marijuana on ballot measures in Colorado and Washington last week present "a huge problem" for the Mexican government's effort to rally public support for the country's deadly war on drugs, Mexican Ambassador Arturo Sarukhan said Wednesday.

November 8, 2012: What Will Obama's Second Term Mean for Latin America?
By Peter Hakim, Andrés Rozental, Rubens Barbosa, Riordan Roett, Ruben Olmos
Source: Latin America Advisor

October 19, 2012: 2011 Program Report (PDF)
By Inter-American Dialogue
A summary overview of the Inter-American Dialogue's work in 2011.

October 5, 2012: Some Justified Optimism in Mexico
By Peter Hakim
Source: Latin Pulse
As Mexico approaches the December 1 inauguration of its new president Enrique Peña Nieto, things are looking up. Though there the new government will face substantial challenges, Mexicans have tangible grounds for optimism, particularly about progress on critical reforms.

October 5, 2012: Ecuadorean Gov't Committed to Landmark Conservation Project
By Rachel Sadon
Source: Latin America Energy Advisor
The Ecuadorean government has raised around $200 million for a landmark conservation project and is committed to raising the funds necessary to reach its $3.6 billion goal by 2024, Ivonne Baki, secretary of state for the Yasuní-ITT Initiative, told the Energy Advisor this week.

September 28, 2012: A Conversation with the Attorney General of the Republic of Ecuador, Diego García
By Cameron Combs
Ecuador’s attorney general Diego García visited the Dialogue to answer questions regarding the legal defense of the country in international disputes. His argument was straightforward: Ecuador respects its international obligations, but uses all of the available legal tools to defend itself and its national interests.

September 21, 2012: Arrest of Drug Lord Aimed at Political Gain in Venezuela: Uribe
By Rachel Sadon
Source: Latin America Advisor
The capture of the alleged Colombian drug lord Daniel "el loco" Barrera earlier this week was aimed at political gain in Venezuela, former President Álvaro Uribe said Thursday at the Bipartisan Policy Center. Implying that Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez stood to benefit in the country's Oct. 7 presidential race from Barrera's apprehension, Uribe asked: "Why didn't Chávez arrest 'loco Barrera' in the last four or five years - why only now on the eve of the elections?"

September 18, 2012: Are Mexican Factories Gaining an Upper Hand Against China's?
By Andrés Rozental, Margaret Myers, James R. Jones, Felipe Canales
Source: Latin America Advisor
With the rising cost of wages in China, manufacturers are increasingly considering Mexico an attractive location to 'reshore' production, McClatchy reported Sept. 10. Is Mexico gaining a competitive edge over China in terms of manufacturing? Or will other low-wage countries come to replace both China and Mexico as manufacturing destinations? What are the challenges and benefits of moving production facilities to Mexico? Can Mexico leverage the low cost of wages into more sustainable growth?

September 7, 2012: U.S. Lacks Credibility on Cuba, Should End Embargo: Carter
By Rachel Sadon
Source: Latin America Advisor
The United States should end its embargo against Cuba and seek constructive dialogue with the Caribbean nation, former U.S. President Jimmy Carter said Thursday. "We should all continue to press the Cuban government to respect individual rights and more political openness, but the embargo undermines any credibility that [the United States] has in calling for improvements in Cuba."

August 22, 2012: What Are the Implications of a Proposed Nicaragua Canal?
By Nicolás Ardito Barletta, Mario Arana, Joaquín Jácome Diez, Carlos Fernando Chamorro
Source: Latin America Advisor
Two Dutch companies said in late July that they had won a contract from Nicaragua's government for a feasibility study of a transportation project to rival the Panama Canal. What would be the economic risks and gains of building a canal across Nicaragua?

July 31, 2012: Does El Salvador's Judicial Crisis Bode Ill for Democracy?
By Francisco Altschul, Mirte Postema, and Michael Shifter and Rachel Schwartz
Source: Latin America Advisor
A dispute between El Salvador's legislative and judicial branches escalated to a constitutional crisis this month, with two separate groups of judges claiming to be the country's legitimate Supreme Court. After a stalemate and pressures both domestically and internationally to resolve the dispute, the two main political parties agreed to hold talks on July 24. What is behind the conflict? Does the conflict have implications for the state of the country's democracy or is it fundamentally a political issue? How should it be settled?

July 24, 2012: What Does the Future Hold for India-Latin America Relations?
By Jorge Heine, Margaret Myers, Jahangir Aziz
Source: Latin America Advisor
India plans to host the first India-CELAC Foreign Ministers' Dialogue on Aug. 7 in New Delhi, the Press Trust of India reported. While India's economic engagement with the region has been far overshadowed by China's, bilateral trade has grown from $2 billion in 2000 to more than $25 billion, with state-controlled Indian oil companies recently announcing almost $3 billion in investments in Venezuela's oil sector. Where are political and economic relations between India and Latin America headed? What constraints are there to improving trade and how can they be remedied? Which countries and sectors present the best opportunities for growth?

July 23, 2012: Obama Gets Boost From Hispanic Voters in Wake of Policy Shift
By Rachel Sadon
Source: Latin America Advisor
New polling data suggests a measurable increase in support from Latinos for U.S. President Barack Obama after he announced an executive order to cease deportation of many immigrants brought to the United States illegally as children and the Supreme Court ruled on Arizona's immigration law.

July 19, 2012: Are Central America Education Reforms Making the Grade?
By José Luis Guzmán, Roberto Moreno Godoy, Tamara Ortega Goodspeed, and Alexandra Solano
Source: Latin America Advisor
Dozens of people, including two cabinet ministers, were injured earlier this month in Guatemala as students and police clashed during a protest against education reforms. The reforms include lengthening the amount of time students must study to become primary school teachers from three years to five. What is the state of education reform in Guatemala and the rest of Central America? Are teaching reforms needed in the region? If so, what changes are most critical? What other types of reforms should governments undertake?

March 22, 2012: Special China Edition of the Latin America Advisor (PDF)
By the Inter-American Dialogue's daily Latin America Advisor
A special China edition of the Dialogue's daily Latin America Advisor.

January 25, 2012: A Discussion on the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act and its Implications for Latin America
By Rachel Sadon
A discussion of the implications for Latin America of the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (FATCA)

September 21, 2011: How Big of an Economic Threat Does China Pose to Brazil?
By David Kupfer, Gary Hufbauer, Margaret Myers, John Williamson
Brazil's government on Sept. 6 slapped tariffs on some imports of Chinese steel, saying it would defend domestic producers against unfair competition, Reuters reported. The action is part of President Dilma Rousseff's effort to protect the country's economy and industrial sector in the face of a surging local currency and low-priced Chinese goods. How big of a threat does China pose to Brazil's industrialization and competitiveness? What other factors are at work? Will the anti-dumping measures, border controls and tax breaks associated with Rousseff's industrial plan, 'Plano Brasil Maior,' slow the onslaught of cheap imports? What are the risks and benefits to this approach?

September 8, 2011: How Is the Immigration Debate Changing in the United States?
By Dan Stein, Doris Meissner, and Louis DeSipio
Last month, U.S. President Barack Obama announced a new immigration policy that allows authorities to use prosecutorial discretion in determining deportations, allowing "many undocumented immigrants without criminal records to stay in the United States." The announcement comes on the heels of protests targeting the Secure Communities program, which activists argue was being used improperly to deport minor offenders. Meanwhile, new reports indicate that illegal immigration has declined significantly over the past several years. How is the immigration debate changing in the United States and what does the new policy mean for that debate? How is it likely to play out in the presidential race? What will be the economic consequences of a decline in immigration?

July 22, 2011: How Is China Changing Latin America's Energy Sector?
By Margaret Myers, Kirk Sherr and Roger Tissot
China recently announced several loans worth billions of dollars to Ecuador and Venezuela-to be paid back largely in the form of oil-for public works, energy and infrastructure projects. These investments and others have made China the biggest credit source for the two governments, often on terms that other financial institutions would spurn, analysts have pointed out. Are China's big loans going to be good deals for the Latin American countries? Will the money come through, and will it be used effectively for the intended purposes? Is China's increased investment in Ecuador, Venezuela and other countries in the region playing out as expected several years ago? What unexpected or new economic and political twists are on the horizon resulting from evolving China-Latin America relations?

July 18, 2011: How Important Are the United States and Peru to Each Other?
By Julio Carrión, Coletta A. Youngers, and David Scott Palmer
Source: Latin America Advisor
What does the meeting between President Obama and Peruvian president-elect Ollanta Humala, occurring even before Humala takes office, say about the importance the United States places on its relationship with Peru and its incoming president? From Peru's perspective, how important is the United States? Will the two countries be good partners after Humala is sworn in?

July 11, 2011: What Lessons Can Europe Learn From Latin America?
By Kevin P. Gallagher, Daniel Marx, Desmond Lachman, and Mark Weisbrot
Source: Latin America Advisor
Since the global economic recession in 2008-09, several European countries have struggled with debt crises that many analysts have likened to Latin America's struggles in past decades. What lessons can Europe learn from Latin America and how should Europe handle its ongoing financial crisis?

May 25, 2011: Is Ecuador On the Brink of a 'Perfect Dictatorship?
By Gustavo Jalkh, Osvaldo Hurtado, Adrián Bonilla, Christopher Sabatini, Marc Becker
Source: Latin America Advisor
Ecuadoreans cast their votes May 7 in a referendum that many observers considered a gauge of President Rafael Correa's popularity. The 10 questions included issues that would give the president increased control over the media and judiciary, leading former President Osvaldo Hurtado to say the country was on the brink of a 'perfect dictatorship.' Results from the polls indicate that Correa received a 'yes' vote on all 10 questions but with a more narrow victory than expected. Is Ecuador on the 'brink of a perfect dictatorship' or are the reforms necessary? What does the close margin of victory indicate about Correa's leadership? What does the outcome mean for the political landscape of the country?

March 2, 2011: El Tratado de Libre Comercio entre EE-UU y Colombia, Camino de su Aprobación
By Peter Hakim
Source: InfoLatam
Lejos aún de ser un hecho, la situación favorece ahora la ratificación por parte del Congreso de los acuerdos de libre comercio de Estados Unidos con Colombia y Panamá este año. Lo que más alentó las perspectivas de los tratados de comercio con América Latina fue la gran victoria republicana en las elecciones del pasado mes de Noviembre en el Congreso, que dio lugar a una considerable mayoría republicana en la Cámara de Representantes con un nuevo presidente

March 2, 2011: US-Colombian Free Trade on Track to Approval
By Peter Hakim
Source: InfoLatam
Although far from a done deal, the odds now favor congressional ratification of the US’s free trade accords with Colombia and Panama this year. What most lifted the prospects of the Latin America trade treaties was the huge Republican victory in last November’s mid-term elections for Congress, which produced a sizable Republican majority in the House of Representatives along with a new Speaker.

March 2, 2011: Has the United States Failed to Adequately Fight Illegal Drugs?
By Barry R. McCaffrey, Andrés Rozental, Sanho Tree
Source: Latin America Advisor
A new Inter-American Dialogue report says U.S. drug policies, which are mostly focused on prohibiting the production, distribution and consumption of narcotics, 'have done little to diminish the problems they were designed to address' and are costly in both financial and human terms. The report calls for a broad national debate on U.S. drug strategies and an intense review of international policies. Is growing violence in Mexico and elsewhere in Latin America a sign of failures in drug policy? Has the Obama administration made any significant change in anti-drug efforts? What policies should it be pursuing? What anti-drug programs in the United States and in Latin America have been particularly successful and should be replicated?

February 8, 2011: Insulza Not Forceful Enough in Promoting Democracy: U.S. Envoy
By Gene Kuleta
Source: Latin America Advisor
The chief of the Organization of American States, José Miguel Insulza, is not firm enough in promoting democracy in the hemisphere, though he is constrained by the organization's structure, the permanent U.S. representative to the OAS, Carmen Lomellin, told the Latin America Advisor in an exclusive interview.

November 23, 2010: What Roles Did Latin American Countries Play at the G-20 Summit?
By Sergio Bitar, Craig Kelly, Rogelio Ramirez de la O

November 16, 2010: What Are the Prospects for Costa Rica-Nicaragua Relations?
By Kevin Casas-Zamora, Mario Arana, Patricio Grané, Mitchell Seligson

November 8, 2010: What Do the U.S. Election Results Mean for Latin America?
By Jim Kolbe, Andres Rozental, James R. Jones, Jason Hafemeister
In the U.S. midterm elections Nov. 2, Republicans won control of the House of Representatives and picked up seats in the Democrat-controlled Senate, which President Barack Obama called a 'shellacking' for Democrats. What do the election results mean for hemispheric policy and foreign relations? How will the Republican victories affect immigration, trade, and other issues that are relevant to Latin America?

October 6, 2010: In Danger of Derailing a Sector with Great Potential
By Claudio Loser
Source: Latin Amerca Advisor
In my Sept. 7 column, I discussed the effect of the Russian drought and fires on world food production, and suggested that the consequences for Latin America would be favorable, if managed well. Unfortunately, there are other examples of potential gains for the region being curtailed by actions in the developed world, with a specific involvement of the World Bank. Palm oil is a case in point.

September 17, 2010: Former Chief of Argentine Central Bank Predicts Continued Inflation
By Rachel Sadon
Source: Latin America Advisor
The former president of the Central Bank of Argentina, Martín Redrado, warned Thursday that the Argentine economy is showing signs of exhaustion at a discussion hosted by the Inter-American Dialogue.

August 2, 2010: Argentina's Debt Policies Keep its Reputation Tarnished
By Claudio Loser
The past month has been far from easy for Argentina, even as the authorities have declared victory more often than not. The World Cup is over and against domestic predictions Argentina's soccer team, and Argentina's own international reputation, have both remained in the customary second tier of rankings.

July 27, 2010: What Can Calm Tensions Between Venezuela and Colombia?
By Michael Shifter, Bernardo Alvarez Herrera, Luis Alfonso Hoyos
Source: Latin America Advisor
Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez on July 22 severed diplomatic relations with Colombia over Bogotá's accusation that Colombian rebels are taking refuge in Venezuela. Chávez also said earlier this month that he will not attend the Aug. 7 inauguration of Colombia's incoming president, Juan Manuel Santos. Trade between the two countries has also plummeted since Chávez blocked most imports from Colombia. Will bilateral relations improve at all under Santos? Who is suffering the ill effects of the reduced trade? What is needed to calm tensions between Bogotá and Caracas?

June 16, 2010: Interview with Former Senator Mel Martinez
By Latin America Advisor
The Dialogue's Latin America Advisor interviewed former Senator Mel Martinez, Republican of Florida, on the U.S.-Cuba relationship. A version of this interview was published in the Advisor's Featured Q&A on June 16.

June 15, 2010: What Was Accomplished at Last Week's OAS Meeting?
By John F. Maisto, Vicki Gass, Diego Arria, Abraham F. Lowenthal
Foreign ministers from across the Western Hemisphere, including U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, gathered June 6-8 in Lima for the annual General Assembly of the Organization of American States. What was accomplished at the meeting?

June 11, 2010: Former Argentine Energy Ministers: Sector Needs Long-Term Plan
By Matthew Schewel
Two former energy secretaries of Argentina on Thursday called on their government to adopt a long-term strategy to diversify the country's energy sources, stem a decline in oil and gas production and stimulate investment in the electricity sector by phasing out subsidies.

May 20, 2010: U.S. Could Lose Trade Edge in Asia, Latin America: Experts
By Matthew Schewel
The United States needs to take on a leadership role in global trade diplomacy or risk losing its ability to compete in Asian and Latin American markets, experts said at a recent panel discussion co-hosted by the Inter-American Dialogue and the Chilean-American Chamber of Commerce.

May 18, 2010: Latin America's Growing Equality: Myth or Reality?
By Jeffrey Puryear
It's worth noting that inequality has declined recently in much of Latin America. But are these decreases part of a long-term trend? Has Latin America found an effective and sustainable strategy for reducing inequality?

May 4, 2010: Has Obama Kept His Summit of the Americas Promises?
By Michael Shifter, Bernardo Álvarez, Roger Noriega
It was just over a year ago that leaders of 34 nations of the hemisphere gathered in Trinidad and Tobago for the Summit of the Americas. How much progress has been made in the past year on the goals expressed at the summit?

April 28, 2010: Ex-Im Bank On Track to Double Latin America Financing This Year
By Matthew Schewel
The Export-Import Bank of the United States is on track to double its financing of U.S. exports to Latin America this year as part of President Barack Obama's ambitious plan to increase the country's exports twofold by 2015, the bank's head said Tuesday.

April 26, 2010: Bolivia Seeks Investment as Companies Vie to Develop Lithium
By Matthew Schewel
Bolivia's government is in negotiations with a number of firms to develop the country's vast lithium reserves and plans to award the concession to the company that offers it the best deal for "comprehensive industrialization," Finance Minister Luis Arce said Friday.

April 23, 2010: At Washington Summit, U.S. and Venezuela Renew Energy Dialogue
By Matthew Schewel
Venezuela and the United States last Friday held their first cabinet-level meeting on energy cooperation since 2004, pledging to restart the exchange of technical information that was suspended during the administration of former President George W. Bush.

April 21, 2010: How Could U.S. Financial Reform Affect Money Transfer Companies?
By Manuel Orozco, Annette LoVoi, Paul Dwyer and Tom Haider
A draft version of the Restoring American Financial Stability Act proposed by U.S. Sen. Christopher Dodd (D.-Conn.) contains an amendment that would directly impact the money transfer industry, including requirements that companies regularly disclose and post exchange rates. How would the bill in its current form affect remittance providers?

April 15, 2010: At Energy Summit, IDB Pledges to Double Energy Loans By 2012
By Matthew Schewel
The Inter-American Development Bank plans to double lending for energy and climate-related projects from an estimated $1.5 billion this year to $3 billion by 2012, the bank's president said Thursday at a summit of Western Hemisphere energy ministers in Washington

March 16, 2010: Is This Time Different For Latin American Economies?
By Claudio Loser
The common wisdom these days is that Latin America has learned its lessons after 30 years of general mismanagement, and that now the situation is truly different. In an attempt to find out, I focused on the predictors of external crises described in the book "This Time is Different" by Kenneth Rogoff and Carmen Reinhart.

February 26, 2010: Pentagon Official: Drug Traffickers Threatening Central America
By Matthew Schewel
The top U.S. Defense Department official for Latin America expressed concern Thursday that a crackdown on the drug trade in Colombia, Mexico and the Caribbean is leading traffickers to seek refuge in Central America, posing a potentially destabilizing threat to the region.

February 25, 2010: Head of Mexican Banking Association Sees Rebound in Loan Growth
By Matthew Schewel
The head of Mexico's banking association said Wednesday he expects loan growth to top 10 percent this year as the country pulls out of its worst recession in over a decade. Mortgages and loans to small businesses are poised to grow more than 15 and 20 percent respectively.

February 3, 2010: Region's Economic Outlook Depends Increasingly on China, Brazil
By Dialogue staff
Latin America and the Caribbean—a region made up of more than 20 nations—increasingly finds its economic outlook tied to the fate of two countries, Brazil and China, Wall Street analysts told an audience at the Inter-American Dialogue Wednesday.

January 28, 2010: In Profile: Brazil's New Ambassador to the U.S.
By Matthew Schewel
In Profile: Mauro Vieira: Brazil's New Ambassador to the United States

January 25, 2010: In Rebuilding Haiti, Improving Education Must Be a Priority
By Jeffrey Puryear
The severity of the earthquake's impact on the Haitian people is due in large part to the country's poverty and its weak government. Countries that are poor, and poorly educated, seldom have the human resources and institutions that can plan for emergencies and respond quickly and effectively when they occur.

January 20, 2010: A Conversation on the Chilean Elections
By Matthew Schewel
Sebastian Pinera will be Chile's first right-leaning president since its return to democracy in 1990, but the billionaire businessman is not likely to change the economic policies of his center-left predecessors, except for a few "minor adjustments."

January 4, 2010: FDI in the Region Will Recover This Year After Sliding in 2009
By Alicia Bárcena
Foreign direct investment (FDI) in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) was expected to fall considerably in 2009 as a consequence of the global economic crisis.

December 24, 2009: What Issues Will Drive U.S.-Latin American Relations Next Year?
By Arturo Valenzuela, Peter Hakim, Andrés Rozental and Roger Noriega
According to a Gallup Poll conducted last summer, Latin Americans' perceptions of U.S. leadership improved dramatically this year as President Barack Obama took office. Despite general public goodwill, however, the Obama administration has faced sharp criticism over the handling of the coup in Honduras and a military agreement between the United States and Colombia that alienated some countries in South America. What issues will drive U.S.-Latin American relations in the coming year?

December 23, 2009: Latin America's Economic Growth Will Rebound in 2010
By Shelly Shetty
Latin America has withstood the stress test of the global economic and financial crisis relatively well. The region entered the period of the global financial crisis in relatively good health with record-high international reserves, manageable external account imbalances, modest government debt burdens and comparatively healthy financial systems that were not exposed to "toxic" assets or highly dependent on external funding.

December 11, 2009: Former Head of Brazil's Oil Regulator Criticizes Pre-Salt Reforms
By Matthew Schewel
The Brazilian government's plan to overhaul oil development rules for the country's vast offshore reserves is largely unnecessary and could end up making the country's state oil company less efficient, the former head of Brazil's oil regulatory agency said Tuesday.

December 10, 2009: A Conversation with Fernando Henrique Cardoso
By Matthew Schewel
The event explored the evolution of US-Latin American relations in the first year of the Obama administration; the growing influence of Brazil in hemispheric politics; and the tense political dynamics of much of Latin America at the start of a new electoral cycle.

December 9, 2009: Argentina: A New Chapter in a Long-Running Debt Saga
By Claudio Loser
While readers may think I deal too often with Argentina, the truth is that the country keeps creeping into the international financial news.

November 24, 2009: Peru's Garcia Belaunde: Chile Spy Case a Bilateral, Not Regional, Issue
By Matthew Schewel
The Peruvian government does not plan to use Friday's meeting of the Union of South American Nations, or Unasur, as a forum to address a recent spy scandal that has elevated tensions with neighboring Chile, Foreign Minister Jose Antonio Garcia Belaunde said Monday

November 17, 2009: Study: Latin America Weathered Economic Crisis Well
By Matthew Schewel
While most countries in Latin America have seen reduced economic growth in 2009 as a result of the global economic slowdown, the region has largely escaped the major damage to its financial systems that defined previous crises, according to a new study published by the United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean.

November 13, 2009: Is the Region Coming Out of the Crisis, and If So, How Well?
By Claudio Loser
A year ago, we were struggling with the impact of the worst global financial crisis in recent memory, at least in mine. This year, the world will have registered its first decline in output since the middle of last century.

November 13, 2009: Peru Gov't and Indigenous Group Still Disagree on Bagua Clash
By Matthew Schewel
More than five months after a deadly clash between police and indigenous protesters in the Peruvian Amazon killed at least 34 people, leading the government to roll back efforts to open up the region for oil and gas development and other extractive industries, a Peruvian indigenous leader said native communities are still searching for answers.

November 6, 2009: How Has the Honduran Crisis Affected the U.S. Role in the Region?
By Peter Hakim
Source: Latin America Advisor
Whether or not it resolves the Honduran crisis, last week's agreement between deposed President Manuel Zelaya and de facto leader Roberto Micheletti was a victory for moderation and reason in a situation heretofore notably lacking these characteristics.

October 22, 2009: Honduran Election Body: Voters to Decide Country's Fate
By Matthew Schewel
Honduran citizens, not the international community, will decide the country's future in the upcoming presidential election, members of Honduras' Supreme Electoral Tribunal said Thursday in Washington.

October 21, 2009: The Argentine Economy in the New Political and International Environment (PDF)
By Miguel Kiguel
Source: econviews
Powerpoint presented by Miguel Kiguel at a Dialogue event, "Argentina's Economy and its Prospect for Recovery and Sustained Growth," moderated by Edgardo Sternberg, on October 21, 2009.

October 21, 2009: Economic Stability in Argentina, a conversation with Miguel Kiguel and Edgardo Sternberg
By Amanda Gdula
This discussion featured Miguel Kiguel, one of Argentina’s most respected economists and the former deputy secretary of finance under President Carlos Menem. He was joined by Loomis Sayles’ Latin America strategist Edgardo Sternberg for a Dialogue meeting on October 21st, 2009.

September 24, 2009: Colombia Hopes to Win US Hearts in Free Trade Debate
By Matthew Schewel
With a Colombia-US free trade agreement stalled in both houses of the US Congress over concerns about human rights and judicial reform in the South American country, the Colombian government is taking its case directly to the American public, mounting a large-scale public relations campaign that made a stop earlier this month in downtown Washington.

September 16, 2009: How Well is Obama Handling Latin American Issues?
By Peter Hakim
The Obama administration is on the right track in Latin America. With the notable exception of trade matters, the administration's policy statements and decisions have mostly been welcomed in Latin America, and the president himself is well regarded by the region's leaders and ordinary citizens

September 14, 2009: Mesa: US-Bolivia Relations Depend on New Partner to Fight Drugs
By Matthew Schewel
Repairing the fractured relationship between the United States and Bolivia will likely hinge on finding a new partner to supplant US anti-drug efforts in the South American nation, former Bolivian President Carlos Mesa said last week.

September 11, 2009: Lugar: Zelaya Must Be 'Constructive' to End Honduras Impasse
By Matthew Schewel
A high-ranking US senator said Thursday he told deposed Honduran President Manuel Zelaya to use "constructive means" in pursuing a solution to the political crisis that has wracked the Central American country since Zelaya's ouster more than two months ago.

August 28, 2009: Will Brazil's New Natural Gas Law Stimulate Investment? (PDF)
By Energy Advisor Staff
Earlier this year, Brazilian President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva signed a new natural gas law that aims to better regulate the industry, stimulate domestic production and spur investment in natural gas infrastructure. What will be the biggest changes in the new regulatory regime and is the law likely to have its intended effect?

August 24, 2009: Data Paints Troublesome Picture for Latin American Growth
By Claudio Loser
Source: Latin America Advisor
The lesson, unfortunately, is that the region has done its homework on macro-management, as the current crisis shows. However, if Latin America wants to prosper, we need to make much more intense efforts to solve our secular problems, and break away from our "middle-income trap."

August 18, 2009: Fiscal Reform a Politically Thorny Issue in Mexico, Analysts Say
By Matthew Schewel
The Mexican economy is in the midst of its worst crisis in more than a decade, but political obstacles including a rejuvenated opposition in Mexico's Congress could complicate attempts by President Felipe Calderon to enact much-needed fiscal reforms, analysts said Tuesday.

August 14, 2009: Ecuador Envoy Calls for Greater Efficiency in Country's Oil Sector
By Matthew Schewel
Source: Energy Advisor
Ecuador's ambassador to the United States called for boosting the efficiency of the country's oil sector and touted Ecuador's potential to supply large Asian markets, even as private investors continue to raise concerns about the country's investment climate.

August 12, 2009: Envoy Says US Military Plan May Embolden Colombian Forces
By Matthew Schewel
Source: Latin America Advisor
A greater US military presence in Colombia would likely increase chances the South American nation would launch a "pre-emptive" attack on a neighboring country, creating a "rupture of the whole inter-American system," Ecuador's ambassador said in an interview with the Advisor.

August 12, 2009: U.S. Investigates Purchase of Petroleum Products from Mexico
By Interview with Matthew Schewel
Source: Clean Skies TV,
The US and Mexican government has been investigating the purchase of millions of dollars worth of petroleum products by US companies, officials say were stolen from Mexican oil company Pemex.

August 4, 2009: Is Brazil's Lula Taking the Right Approach With Iran?
By Peter Hakim and Donna Hrinak
Brazil has been increasing trade ties with Iran, and Brazilian President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva recognized Mahmoud Ahmadinejad as the victor in Iran's disputed presidential elections. Is the Lula administration taking the right tack on Iran?

July 22, 2009: Brazil's Rousseff Makes Push for Biofuels, Trade in Washington Visit
By Matthew Schewel
Source: Latin America Advisor
Despite lingering uncertainties in the commercial relationship between the US and Brazil—including a US tariff on Brazilian ethanol imports and slow movement on bilateral tax and investment treaties—the two largest economies in the Americas are initiating a strategic partnership, top officials from both governments said Tuesday.

July 22, 2009: How Well is the OAS Handling the Coup in Honduras? (PDF)
By Peter Hakim
Source: Latin America Advisor
The OAS is the only institution with the mandate and legitimacy to respond to constitutional violations in the hemisphere. The Inter- American Democratic Charter is clear on this point, as are previous OAS resolutions on the collective defense of democracy. To act without agreement of national authorities, however, the OAS needs the consensus of it members. In Honduras, the OAS appropriately sought to carry out a unanimous decision of its members—to condemn the coup against President Zelaya, regard him as the legitimate president, and restore him to office. It was expected, erroneously, that the coup could be swiftly reversed.

July 22, 2009: How Well is the OAS Handling the Coup in Honduras?
By Latin America Advisor Staff
The Organization of American States has taken center stage in the international community’s response to the coup in Honduras. Has the OAS acted appropriately to date? What are its strengths and weaknesses in responding to situations like the one in Honduras, and what needs to change at the OAS to make it better? Where else in the region could similar situations to the Honduras coup emerge? Is the OAS the best mechanism for maintaining the peace and stability necessary for economic growth in the region's most fragile democracies?

June 26, 2009: Ecuador's Correa Confronts Teachers With Job Evaluations
By Jeffrey Puryear
Source: Published in the Dialogue’s Latin America Advisor
Acting decidedly right-of-center, Ecuador's leftist President Rafael Correa has embarked on a major confrontation with the National Union of Educators (UNE), the country's largest teacher's union, over the first-ever round of teacher evaluations. The assessments are part of a package of reforms that Ecuador's Ministry of Education announced earlier this year. Teachers who do well on their evaluations will get a salary bonus during each of the next four years. However, those who do poorly two years in a row (and after additional training) will lose their jobs.

June 25, 2009: The Economy's Effects on the Ballot Box in Argentina, Mexico
By Claudio Loser
Source: Published in the Dialogue’s Latin America Advisor
Argentina and Mexico will have congressional elections over the next several days. Both countries have been hit by the international economic crisis, and have serious political and social ills that do not bode well for the incumbent parties—the rightist PAN in Mexico, and the populist-leftist Kirchner wing of the Peronist movement in Argentina.

June 10, 2009: Should the United States Curb the Use of Caribbean Tax Havens? (PDF)
By Financial Services Advisor
The Obama administration said last month that it plans to raise $210 billion in revenues over the next 10 years by curbing corporate and individual use of so-called "offshore tax havens," and has lent its support to several bills in the US Congress aimed at stopping tax shelter abuses. Caribbean countries have rejected such efforts, arguing that they unfairly target small economies heavily dependent on financial services and tourism. Is the recent emphasis on limiting the use of offshore financial centers correctly placed?

June 1, 2009: How Much Danger Does Mexico Face in This Turbulent Time?
By Claudio Loser
Source: Published in the Dialogue’s Latin America Advisor
Mexican Finance Minister Agustin Carstens recently announced that gross domestic product will decline by more than 5 percent in 2009. Only a few weeks ago, in a recent paper on the subject, I suggested that GDP might decline by up to 3 percent. The worsening performance of the Mexican economy is a matter of concern even as the International Monetary Fund is providing the most significant support package granted in recent times and rating agencies have not yet modified Mexico's rating.

May 27, 2009: Caribbean Diplomats Blast US Plan to Crack Down on Tax Havens
By Matthew Schewel
Source: Published in the Dialogue’s Financial Services Advisor
New regulatory measures proposed by US President Barack Obama and currently being debated in the US Congress would make Caribbean offshore financial centers "collateral damage" in the battle for stricter regulation of the world financial system, diplomats from several Caribbean countries said Wednesday.

May 13, 2009: Report: Remittances to Latin America Will Fall 7 Percent This Year
By Matthew Schewel
Source: Published in the Dialogue’s Financial Services Advisor
Remittances to Latin America and the Caribbean will fall by 7 percent this year, totaling $64 billion, as the global economic downturn curtails the demand for labor in developed markets, according to a study released May 8 by the Inter-American Dialogue. While a single-digit drop might seem relatively small as some countries face declining exports of up to 25 percent, it's something that policy makers cannot afford to ignore, Manuel Orozco, author of the report, told reporters in a press briefing.

May 13, 2009: Mexico: A safe vessel or a risky wreck in turbulent waters? (PDF)
By Claudio Loser
Mexico: A safe vessel or a risky wreck in turbulent waters? (May 2009) examines Mexico’s economic conditions with emphasis on its financial system and corporate sector. The report aims to raise questions on Mexican corporates’ ability to refinance themselves in the international marketplace and the related issue of the credit ratings agencies’ accuracy to price in Mexico’s sovereign and corporate risk.

April 23, 2009: How Much of the G-20's Gift Will Go to Latin America?
By Claudio Loser
Source: Published in the Dialogue’s Latin America Advisor
Not much has been written about the amounts of money Latin America and the Caribbean can expect to get. The answer to this is both positive and negative. The region's prospects for financing seem good, but the money will be available over several years, and will not fully offset the loss of private flows. The region could have the potential to obtain $180 billion in loans, or about 5 percent of the region's GDP.

March 12, 2009: Big Mac in the Americas: Cheaper, But Not Cheap
By Claudio Loser
Source: Published in the Dialogue’s Latin America Advisor
The Big Mac (The Economist's version) is back in this column after only a few months. However, many things have changed since September. This time, I want to review how the region's price competitiveness looks today, less than a year after the world financial crisis started.

February 6, 2009: US House Subcommittee Examines Latin American Alliances
By Matthew Schewel
Source: Published in the Dialogue’s Latin America Advisor
During a hearing to examine policy options for Latin America under the Obama Administration, a US House subcommittee earlier this week debated the extent to which the US should engage countries that are seen as unfriendly to US interests.

February 4, 2009: US, Mexico Must Expand Efforts to Fight Human Trafficking
By Marifeli Pérez-Stable and Landen Romei
Source: Latin America Advisor
According to the International Labor Organization, there are 12.3 million people in forced labor and sexual servitude around the world. However, other non-profit organizations estimate that the number is closer to 27 million and growing, especially in Latin America. Since the passage of the Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA) in 2000, the United States has dedicated millions of dollars to protect victims of contemporary slavery worldwide.

January 29, 2009: Stimulus Packages: How Much Can the Region Afford?
By Claudio Loser
Source: Published in the Dialogue’s Latin America Advisor
John Maynard Keynes, long relegated to history books describing his fundamental contributions to macroeconomics, has returned with a vengeance. Everybody has become a Keynesian, even some of us recalcitrant Friedmaniacs. Fortunately, we now know that in times of crisis, large countries can stick both to government spending stimuli (as Keynes proposed) and an adequately ample supply of money in times of financial implosion (as Friedman discovered).

January 28, 2009: At 50, the Cuban Revolution is Facing a Mid-Life Crisis
By Dan Erikson
Source: Latin America Advisor
On January 1, 2009, the Cuban Revolution that brought the Castro regime to power marked its 50th anniversary. A half century has passed since a 32-year-old Fidel Castro led a small band of rebels to triumph during the 1959 Cuban Revolution, ousting the unpopular and corrupt regime of Fulgencio Batistia.

January 27, 2009: Insulza: Obama Must Create Policy With Countries, Not For Them
By Matthew Schewel
Source: Published in the Dialogue’s Latin America Advisor
When US President Barack Obama sits down with hemispheric leaders at the Summit of the Americas in April, a first step towards improving relations with Latin America will be to lend an open ear to the region's concerns, said Secretary General of the Organization of American States Jose Miguel Insulza on Monday

January 23, 2009: What is the Potential for Biofuels Production in the Caribbean? (PDF)
By Energy Advisor Staff
The Jamaican government and Brazilian firm Infinity Bio-Energy failed to reach a deal for the company to take control of Jamaica's state-owned sugar plantations by the December 31 deadline, although the company said it hopes to raise the money to fund the takeover by the end of this month. What is the potential of biofuels production in Jamaica and other islands in the historically sugar-rich Caribbean, both for export and domestic electricity generation? Can the region become a viable destination for Brazilian and other foreign capital related to biofuels development?

January 7, 2009: Foreign Direct Investment Expected to Weaken This Year
By Alicia Bárcena
Source: Latin America Advisor
Despite the current global economic downturn, Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in Latin American and the Caribbean (LAC) for 2008 is expected to surpass the 100 billion mark for the second consecutive year.

January 5, 2009: Inflation in Latin America: Pressures Are Down But Not Out
By Claudio Loser
Source: Published in the Dialogue’s Latin America Advisor
How things change in a year. By the end of 2007 in this same space it was indicated that "inflation is coming back worldwide in response to an unfortunate combination of higher energy and food prices, and expansionary monetary policy."

December 24, 2008: Haiti's Unraveling Will Pose Test for President-elect Obama
By Dan Erikson
Source: Latin America Advisor
Haiti's slow but steady climb out of its political and economic abyss was severely jeopardized in 2008 by a series of internal and external shocks. In the spring, escalating food prices prompted widespread riots as the population pushed back against a 40 percent rise in the costs of basic food commodities, which cut deeply into the standard of living for a population where most people subsist on less than two dollars per day.

December 24, 2008: Latin America Faces 'Remarkable Deceleration' in Growth
By Alfredo Coutino
Source: Latin America Advisor
Latin America has shown a strong resilience to the international crisis. During 2008 the region's performance did not show major signs of deceleration. In fact, in the first half of the year, the region performed at a speed similar to that of one year before.

December 4, 2008: Possible Costs to the Region of the World Financial Crisis
By Claudio Loser
Source: Published in the Dialogue’s Latin America Advisor
Life was to be good for Latin America this year and next. That is what many policy makers in the region wanted—and wanted us—to believe. Delinking was in, and dependency was out. Commodity prices would continue going up and there was no worry about financing. Reserves were high and generally creditworthiness was solid. Problems were hitting only the US and a few other developed countries that had caused the world economic commotion.

November 25, 2008: Financial Crisis and the Poor: What Should Governments Do?
By Mariellen Jewers
The Dialogue held a breakfast discussion on how the economic slowdown will affect the poverty and inequality, and what Latin American governments should do to minimize the negative impact on the poor. Ariel Fiszbein, Chief Economist for the Human Development Network at the World Bank and Suzanne Duryea, a Senior Economist at the Inter-American Development Bank presented; Nora Lustig, Shapiro Visiting Professor of international affairs at George Washington University, offered comments.

November 24, 2008: Reform in Mexico Forces Debate on Sale of Teaching Positions
By Jeffrey Puryear
Source: Published in the Dialogue’s Latin America Advisor
Teaching positions are for sale in Mexico, and have been for decades. Although seldom discussed, the practice—established by the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) to reward party loyalists—is apparently widespread. The going price for a teaching position in a public primary school is reported to be between $5,000 and $12,000, depending on locale. Teachers who resign can either sell their positions or pass them on to their children. In at least some cases, local governments and the teachers' union supervise the buying and selling process.

November 21, 2008: At OAS, Evo Morales Calls for an End to US Policies of 'Imposition'
By Matthew Schewel
Source: Published in the Dialogue’s Latin America Advisor
In his first ever trip to Washington, Bolivian President Evo Morales thanked the Organization of American States for help that he said prevented civil war in his nation earlier this year. Morales also proved to be a polarizing figure, even on US soil, as a small group of Bolivians assembled outside the OAS protested what they claimed was political repression in the Andean nation.

November 14, 2008: US Congress to Consider Preferential Trade Status for Paraguay
By Elisabeth Burgess
Source: Latin America Advisor
Rep. Eliot Engel (D-NY) this week said he plans to introduce legislation early next year to grant Paraguayan exports duty-free access to the US market. Such trade preferences would give Paraguay similar advantages to those that Andean countries have enjoyed since 1991 under the Andean Trade Preference Act and subsequent Andean Trade Promotion and Drug Eradication Act (ATPDEA), which require countries to cooperate with the US in anti-narcotics efforts.

November 13, 2008: Fox Warns of Isolationism During Times of Economic Crisis
By Matthew Schewel
Source: Published in the Dialogue’s Latin America Advisor
Former Mexican President Vicente Fox on Tuesday warned against repeating what he said was a crucial mistake of the Great Depression—closing off markets during an economic crisis in an effort to create domestic jobs. Fox, who served as president from 2000 to 2006, has publicly questioned President-elect Barack Obama's views on trade. In an interview with the Latin America Advisor, the former President said any attempt to return to the isolationism and "nationalistic attitudes of the past" would be short-sighted.

October 23, 2008: Financial crisis response challenges Brazilian and Mexican governments
By Allison Fritz
Brazilian President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva’s "kingmaker" status in the 2010 national elections may be jeopardized by economic fallout from the global financial crisis, an analyst said Thursday at an Inter-American Dialogue event in Washington.

October 15, 2008: Full impact of global financial crisis not yet seen in Latin America
By Allison Fritz
Santiago Levy, vice president of sectors and knowledge at the Inter-American Development Bank, suggested that the dust of the recent global financial crisis “has not yet settled.” He was joined by Claudio Loser, former Western Hemisphere director of the International Monetary Fund, to address the impact of the crisis on Latin America and to propose some logical projections for the coming year. Their comments framed a discussion hosted by the Inter American Dialogue on October 15 about the financial crisis impact on the hemisphere.

October 10, 2008: Russia Exploits an Opening in Latin America
By Dan Erikson
Source: Latin America Advisor
With the expulsion last month of the US ambassadors to Bolivia and Venezuela, few were surprised to see Washington's relations with Latin America reach a new low. Far more striking is the fact the Russia's Vladimir Putin has taken advantage of receding US influence to step into the breach and actively consolidate Moscow's ties with the region.

October 9, 2008: World Bank: Latin America 'Better-Built' to Withstand Crisis
By Matthew Schewel
Source: Published in the Dialogue’s Energy Advisor
The World Bank's chief economist for Latin America and the Caribbean, Augusto de la Torre, said Wednesday the region has better "immunological capacities" than in the past to confront the global financial crisis, but that the initial effects—financial contagion, decreased demand for exports, and lower commodity prices—are already hitting home in the hemisphere.

October 7, 2008: What World Financial Policymakers Could Learn From the Mexican Collapse of Yesteryear
By Claudio Loser
Source: Published in the Dialogue’s Latin America Advisor
Today Mexico is suffering from the US slowdown, but its financial system is strong, and its economy very resilient in response of the strengthening of policies and institutions. Would it not be wise for US policymakers to leave their pride aside, and consult their brethren to the south, the IMF, and others for good advice on best practices for the financial system?

October 1, 2008: Jamaican PM "Confident" in Face of US Crisis; Warns of Tourism Decline
By Matthew Schewel
Source: Published in the Dialogue’s Latin America Advisor
Prime Minister Bruce Golding said Tuesday that Jamaica's financial system was in a good position to respond to the crisis on Wall Street, and that the biggest blow to the economy would come from an expected downturn in tourism receipts.

September 22, 2008: Still More Expensive to Have a Big Mac—and to Compete—in Latin America
By Claudio Loser
Source: Published in the Dialogue’s Latin America Advisor
The Big Mac exchange rate index (just issued by the Economist magazine for 2008) is attractive in its ability to capture in a universal and simple fashion changes in relative purchasing power among countries. It has serious shortcomings, as it follows only one specific product, but it captures very well major changes in prices and exchange rates.

August 22, 2008: Low Intra-Regional Trade Shows Region's Lack of Dynamism
By Claudio Loser
Source: Published in the Dialogue’s Latin America Advisor
It is by now a boring truism to say that trade and investment have exploded in the world—more so in the developing world. The rapid rise of Asia, together with a healthy recovery of Latin America and others, has brought new possibilities for the majority of emerging countries. However, developments have not been homogeneous: Asia has been engaged in a revolutionary transformation; Latin America has pursued integration efforts for a long time, but with considerably poorer results; and Africa is only now starting the process.

August 14, 2008: What Can We Learn From Cuba and the Dominican Republic?
By Jeffrey Puryear
Source: Published in the Dialogue’s Latin America Advisor
Scores from a recent region-wide student achievement test demonstrate again that an overwhelming number of Latin American children are failing to reach adequate levels in math, language, and science. But most striking is that two countries—Cuba and the Dominican Republic—scored much differently than the others.

August 1, 2008: Brazil, Colombia and Mexico Lead Region in World Bank Loans
By Matthew Schewel
The World Bank invested $4.6 billion in Latin America during the 2008 fiscal year, with Brazil, Colombia, and Mexico constituting the Bank's largest finance recipients by volume, Pamela Cox, the Bank's Vice President for Latin America and the Caribbean, told a press conference on Tuesday at its headquarters in Washington, DC.

July 29, 2008: Miami Group Dinner with Colombian Defense Minister Juan Manuel Santos
By Landen Romei
At an off-the-record dinner in exclusive Miami Beach, Colombian Defense Minister Juan Manuel Santos addressed over forty of Miami’s finest leaders from a variety of sectors.

July 29, 2008: Latin American Business Environment Statistics Push Governments to Reform
By Tanwina Hossain
While proving to be an effective and necessary tool, panelists agreed that the World Bank’s “Ease of Doing Business” (EDB) index overlooked critical aspects of a nation’s business environment. An event at the Inter-American Dialogue on July 29, 2008 focused on the World Bank's index as well as other trends related to Latin America's business climate.

July 28, 2008: Calderon's Popularity Hinges on Success of Anti-Drug Effort
By Marifeli Pérez-Stable and Landen Romei
Source: Latin America Advisor
When Felipe Calderon assumed the presidency on December 2, 2006, his legitimacy was in question. On July 2, 2006, he had won the narrowest of victories over Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador, who cried fraud and proclaimed himself the "legitimate president."

July 9, 2008: Peru's Investment Outlook
By Latin America Advisor
Former Peruvian Prime Minister and World Bank General Counsel Roberto Dañino—who is now Deputy Chairman and Executive Director of Hochschild Mining—led off a discussion about the future of investment in Peru, followed by commentary from Liliana Ruiz, the former head of Peru’s telecommunications regulatory agency, and the Dialogue's Michael Shifter.

July 9, 2008: Latin American Energy Efficiency Gains Lagging Rest of World
By Claudio Loser
Source: Published in the Dialogue’s Latin America Advisor
Often we look at important worldwide economic issues, and we find evidence that Latin America is well positioned but losing out to the rest of the world. The region's GDP per capita is higher than in any other emerging area of the world, but the gap is narrowing fast. The region is a major food and oil exporter, but policies do not help reduce vulnerabilities to price fluctuations; and gas and oil resources are declining at a dangerous pace. This month my column deals with energy use. The picture again is mixed, with relatively high efficiency but limited gains at a time of a re-emerging energy crisis.

June 24, 2008: A Conversation with Francisco Gros—Brazil's New Energy Challenges and Opportunities
By Latin America Advisor
Annual foreign direct investment (FDI) in Brazil could double as auctions for new offshore oil finds in the South American country get back on track, the former president of national oil company Petrobras said Tuesday at the Inter-American Dialogue.

June 16, 2008: How Will Soaring Fuel Costs Affect Latin American Airlines? (PDF)
By Robert Simpson, Editor
How Will Soaring Fuel Costs Affect Latin American Airlines?

June 6, 2008: Challenge for Mexican Education "Alliance" is Execution
By Jeffrey Puryear
Source: Published in the Dialogue’s Latin America Advisor
The "Alliance for Education Quality," approved on May 15 by Mexican President Felipe Calderon and the powerful head of the national teachers' union, Elba Esther Gordillo, aims to transform Mexico's poorly performing public schools into a key tool for promoting social advancement and international competitiveness.

June 4, 2008: Fernandez's Easy Victory in the DR Belies Tough Road Ahead
By Dan Erikson
Source: Published in the Dialogue’s Latin America Advisor
On May 16, President Leonel Fernandez romped to victory in the Dominican Republic's presidential elections and won a coveted third term in office. Despite sporadic political violence that claimed three lives, Fernandez declared the election to be a 'democratic fiesta' and called for a national celebration. But he quickly warned that 'the country must return to normalcy to face the challenges of adverse international conditions.' Indeed, while the Dominican Republic has thrived under Fernandez's leadership, many deeply rooted challenges remain.

June 3, 2008: Developing Asia Could Catch Up to Latin America by 2030
By Claudio Loser
Source: Published in the Dialogue’s Latin America Advisor
This column briefly presents some per capita income projections through 2030. The results suggest a declining relative position of the region in the world.

May 21, 2008: The market outlook for remittances insurance (PDF)
By Robert Simpson, Editor
FEATURED Q&A El Salvador-based money transfer operator Gigante Express and New-Orleans based insurer Pan-American Life on May 5 launched an insured remittance product that protects recipients in the case of the sender's accidental death. What is the market for remittance insurance? Will other insurance and remittance companies team up in the future? What impact will insurance have on remittance flows? About Our Commentators: Ernesto Armenteros is Executive Vice President of Grupo Quisqueyana in the Dominican Republic. Sergio Bendixen is President of Bendixen & Associates in Coral Gables, Florida. María Jaramillo is Senior Director of Remittances and Gabrielle Tomchinsky is Senior Director of Microinsurance at ACCION Internacional. Manuel Orozco is Director of the Remittances and Development Program at the Inter-American Dialogue.

May 21, 2008: The market outlook for remittances insurance (PDF)
By Robert Simpson, Editor
FEATURED Q&A El Salvador-based money transfer operator Gigante Express and New-Orleans based insurer Pan-American Life on May 5 launched an insured remittance product that protects recipients in the case of the sender's accidental death. What is the market for remittance insurance? Will other insurance and remittance companies team up in the future? What impact will insurance have on remittance flows? About Our Commentators: Ernesto Armenteros is Executive Vice President of Grupo Quisqueyana in the Dominican Republic. Sergio Bendixen is President of Bendixen & Associates in Coral Gables, Florida. María Jaramillo is Senior Director of Remittances and Gabrielle Tomchinsky is Senior Director of Microinsurance at ACCION Internacional. Manuel Orozco is Director of the Remittances and Development Program at the Inter-American Dialogue.

April 30, 2008: Upgrade for Peru Follows Decade of Strong Economic Results
By Claudio Loser
Source: Published in the Dialogue’s Latin America Advisor
Peru, the seventh-largest economy in Latin America, was recently granted investment-grade status by Fitch Ratings. This action can be expected to be followed by the other two international rating agencies. Peru thus joins a very exclusive regional club, up to now only consisting of Chile and Mexico.

April 30, 2008: Discussion with Peruvian Prime Minister Jorge Del Castillo
By Elisabeth Burgess for the Dialogue's Latin America Advisor
Peru is on track to pass laws needed to implement a free trade agreement (FTA) with the United States, the country's prime minister said on April 30.

April 22, 2008: Latin America, Caribbean the Focus of China-Taiwan Tussle
By Dan Erikson
Source: Published in the Dialogue’s Latin America Advisor
On March 22, Taiwan's hard-fought presidential election produced political shockwaves that sent ripples all the way to Latin America when Ma Ying-jeou led the Koumintang nationalist party back to power for the first time since 2000.

April 22, 2008: Slowdown and Financial Turmoil in the US: Risks for Latin America's Economies
By Elisabeth Burgess for the Dialogue's Latin America Advisor
Latin America is in a good position to weather global economic turmoil sparked by the downturn in the United States, but the region—and especially its poor inhabitants—remain vulnerable, experts said on April 22.

April 18, 2008: The New Old Guard: Making Sense of Post-Fidel Cuba
By Elisabeth Burgess for the Dialogue's Latin America Advisor
A swath of small-scale reforms implemented this year by Cuba's new president, Raul Castro, have the potential to significantly alter the quality of life of many Cubans, but may also increase inequality, leading to new social tensions and maybe even rising crime and violence, a group of experts said on April 18.

April 14, 2008: Lesson of Sao Paulo Reforms: Get the Public on Your Side
By Jeffrey Puryear
Source: Published in the Dialogue's Latin America Advisor
Sao Paulo's state school system, already one of the largest in Latin America, now seeks to become one of the most innovative as well.

April 4, 2008: Miami Group Dinner with Brazilian Central Bank President Henrique Meirelles
By Christian Gomez
Brazil’s central bank president said that his country’s current macroeconomic success is no accident, and that Brazil is perhaps more insulated from external shocks than at any time in recent memory.

April 1, 2008: Cristina Fernandez's First 100 Days Marked by Turbulence
By Marifeli Pérez-Stable and Christian Gómez, Jr.
Source: Latin America Advisor.
Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner recently celebrated her first 100 days as Argentina's president. While her approval ratings remain relatively high (between 47 and 65 percent), the initial period of her presidency has been turbulent.

March 31, 2008: Rising Food Costs Good for Some Countries, Bad for Others
By Claudio Loser
Source: Published in the Dialogue's Latin America Advisor.
The turmoil in the energy markets has been at the center of our collective concerns in the recent past. However, the year 2008 brings us face-to-face with another major crisis, which some newspapers call "the end of cheap food."

March 20, 2008: Raul Castro Raises Hopes for Economic Reforms in Cuba
By Dan Erikson
Source: Published in the Dialogue's Latin America Advisor .
In his February 24 inauguration speech, Raul Castro gave clues to the careful balancing act that he will have to achieve as he consolidates his power as Cuba's new president.

March 18, 2008: A Conversation with Foreign Minister of Ecuador María Isabel Salvador
By Elisabeth Burgess for the Dialogue's Latin America Advisor
Minister: Accusations Ecuador Harbors FARC Rebels Are "Lies"

February 28, 2008: Latin American Labor Protections Increase Informality, Poverty
By Claudio Loser
Source: Published in the Dialogue's Latin America Advisor.
Latin American labor markets are a portrait of contradictions: complex and far-reaching worker protection legislation, significant unemployment, and a high degree of economic informality, not to speak of poverty and inequality.

February 20, 2008: Preocupante ranking de desempeño estudiantil
By Jeffrey Puryear
Source: Publicado en el Latin America Advisor, el boletín diario del Diálogo Interamericano.
Una vez más los países de Latinoamérica se ubicaron en los últimos lugares de un ranking que clasifica a países de acuerdo con los puntajes promedio obtenidos en una prueba internacional de desempeño estudiantil. ¿Cómo podemos interpretar este pobre resultado?

February 20, 2008: Latin America Advisor (PDF)
By Robert Simpson, Editor; Elisabeth Burgess, Reporter.
Published every business day, the Inter-American Dialogue's Latin America Advisor brings readers one-of-a-kind analysis and a snapshot of the day's most important news events.

February 18, 2008: Latin America Energy Advisor (PDF)
By Robert Simpson, Editor; Elisabeth Burgess, Reporter.
The weekly Latin America Energy Advisor captures fresh analysis from business leaders and government officials on the most important developments in Western Hemisphere energy policy.

February 8, 2008: Minister: Colombia Committed to Facilitating Hostage Handover
By Elisabeth Burgess for the Dialogue's Latin America Advisor
A Conversation with Colombian Foreign Minister Fernando Araújo

February 6, 2008: Region's Govts Need to Develop Demand for Quality Education
By Jeffrey Puryear
Source: Published in the Dialogue's Latin America Advisor.
A former Latin American president, reflecting on the difficulty of improving his country's schools, recently observed that: "for a politician, education costs money and produces nothing; it is a net negative process."

February 6, 2008: Presidential Hopeful: Economic Reality in Dominican Republic Not So Good
By Elisabeth Burgess for the Dialogue's Latin America Advisor
A Conversation with Miguel Vargas Maldonado

February 5, 2008: Millennium Challenge Corp. Helps Warm Ties Between US, Nicaragua
By Elisabeth Burgess for the Dialogue's Latin America Advisor
The Millennium Challenge Corporation and Central America

February 5, 2008: Investment Treaties Showing Mixed Results for Latin America, Experts Say
By Mollie Bracewell
Latin American Investment Treaties: How Effective, How Useful

January 30, 2008: Still Unclear if NAFTA Has Reduced Poverty, Inequality in Mexico
By Elisabeth Burgess for the Dialogue's Latin America Advisor
How NAFTA, Migration, and Government Policy Affect Mexico's Poor

January 30, 2008: Senator Questions Colombian Govt's Commitment to Hostage Exchange
By Elisabeth Burgess for the Dialogue's Latin America Advisor
A Conversation with Senator Piedad Córdoba

January 29, 2008: Latin America Not Immune from Global Economic Shocks
By Claudio Loser
Source: Published in the Dialogue’s Latin America Advisor.
The classic and extremely funny 1980 movie "The Gods Must Be Crazy" shows the impact of the casual drop of a Coca Cola bottle from a helicopter on an isolated African tribe and the havoc it creates. Some analysts see a parallel in the recent turmoil in the financial and asset markets as being effectively caused only by the collapse of the "subprime" mortgage market.

January 18, 2008: Venezuela, Mexico Need to Reform State Oil Companies
By Marifeli Pérez-Stable and Christian Gómez, Jr.
Source: Latin America Advisor
On January 3, crude oil futures broke $100 a barrel for the first time ever. While prices have cooled since then, falling below $90 a barrel on January 16, worldwide demand for oil shows no signs of abating. Although high oil prices have led to soaring government revenues for the main oil-producing countries in Latin America, continued high prices will affect each country differently. The main factor is the behavior of national oil companies.

January 8, 2008: Financial Services Advisor (PDF)
By Robert Simpson, Editor; Elisabeth Burgess, Reporter.
The biweekly Financial Services Advisor covers Latin America's banking and insurance sectors, remittances trends and data, new technologies in the industry, and more.

January 3, 2008: More Caribbean Islands Looking to Get into Financial Services
By Dan Erikson
Source: Published in the Dialogue’s Latin America Advisor.
The Caribbean is famous for its offshore financial services, but the reality is that few islands benefit. Offshore financial services have generally been limited to a few leading destinations, including Barbados, the Bahamas, and the UK territories in the Caribbean, but now other islands are looking to get into the game.

January 1, 2008: Forecasting Latin America in 2008
By Robert Simpson, Editor; Elisabeth Burgess, Reporter
"Forecasting Latin America in 2008" is an informal survey of data and analysis compiled exclusively for subscribers to the Inter-American Dialogue's daily Latin America Advisor newsletter. More than 25 CEOs, economists and policy experts contributed to the 2008 survey.

December 20, 2007: Latin America Telecom Advisor (PDF)
By Robert Simpson, Editor; Elisabeth Burgess, Reporter.
The Dialogue's Latin America Telecom Advisor is published every week for informed CEOs, regulatory officials and other experts. In this edition: the outlook for the region's telecom sector in 2008.

December 17, 2007: Six Latin American Countries' Test Scores Near Bottom—Again
By Jeffrey Puryear
Source: Published in the Dialogue's Latin America Advisor.
Once again Latin America has scored near the bottom in a major international test of student achievement. How should we interpret its poor showing?

December 13, 2007: A Conversation with Colombian Vice President Francisco Santos
By Elisabeth Burgess for the Dialogue's Latin America Advisor
Colombian VP: International Community Should Condemn FARC

December 12, 2007: Colombia's Gains Deserve External Support, Approval of FTA
By Claudio Loser
Source: Published in the Dialogue’s Latin America Advisor.
A negative FTA vote would hit Colombia badly, but also hurt the US in its relations with a strong and promising trading partner that could soon become the third-largest economy in the region.

December 6, 2007: Official Says Bolivia Open to Receiving OAS Delegation
By Elisabeth Burgess for the Dialogue's Latin America Advisor

November 21, 2007: El Acuerdo Chileno Sitúa la Accountability al Servicio del Aprendizaje
By Jeffrey Puryear
Source: Publicado en el Latin America Advisor, el boletín diario del Diálogo Interamericano.
El “Acuerdo por la Calidad Educativa” que pactaron recientemente los líderes políticos en Chile es una victoria para el consenso político y un gran paso hacia la mejora de las escuelas públicas del país.

November 21, 2007: No Chileno Left Behind: Reforms Most Ambitious in Region
By Jeffrey Puryear
Source: Published in the Dialogue's Latin America Advisor
The grand agreement on education reform that Chilean political leaders reached last week is a victory for political consensus and a big step forward in improving the country's public schools.

November 19, 2007: War on Terror Gives New Life to Guantanamo Bay Naval Base
By Dan Erikson
Source: Published in the Dialogue’s Latin America Advisor.
The winds of change are blowing through the military detention facility at the US Naval Station in Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. The naval base has been in US possession for more than a century, but it achieved worldwide notoriety when the Bush administration decided to hold hundreds of suspected terrorist detainees there following the US invasion of Afghanistan.

November 14, 2007: After Vote, Costa Rica Turns to Implementation of CAFTA-DR
By Marifeli Pérez-Stable and Fabian Borges-Herrero
Source: Latin America Advisor
Costa Rican President Oscar Arias had made CAFTA approval a central issue of his platform in the 2006 election. Now, Arias can turn his attention to governing and, especially, healing the rifts that a divisive referendum campaign aggravated.

November 8, 2007: Cristina Fernandez's Honeymoon May Be Short in Argentina
By Claudio Loser
Source: Published in the Dialogue’s Latin America Advisor.
In late October, Argentina elected Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner president. The voting process was open and clean. The support was overwhelming and her mandate is strong, but her tenure may be far from easy.

November 1, 2007: Miami Group Launches with Mexican Finance Minister Agustín Carstens
By Christian Gomez
Mexican finance minister Agustín Carstens addressed a group of corporate, financial, and civic leaders from South Florida.

October 16, 2007: Security Challenges in Latin America
By Elisabeth Burgess for the Dialogue's Latin America Advisor
US Worried Venezuelan Arms Buildup Has "Gone Over a Line"

October 9, 2007: Chavez's Threat Against Private Schools Raises Broader Questions
By Jeffrey Puryear
Source: Published in the Dialogue's Latin America Advisor
On September 17, Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez threatened to close or nationalize private schools that refuse to comply with the recently announced "Bolivarian Education System." His action raises a broader question: what can governments legitimately require of their private schools?

October 3, 2007: Education, Investment Keys to Region's Medium-Term Growth
By Claudio Loser
Source: Published in the Dialogue’s Latin America Advisor.
Latin America seems to have done well during the recent turmoil in world financial markets ... The story is unfortunately more sobering when we look at the medium-term prospects for economic growth.

October 1, 2007: Cristina Fernandez's Biggest Challenge: Cleaning Up Argentine Politics
By Dan Erikson
Source: Published in the Dialogue’s Latin America Advisor.
As Argentine President Nestor Kirchner's four-year term draws to a close, voters appear likely to elect his wife Cristina Fernandez as Argentina's next president.

September 25, 2007: Carlos Slim's Wealth Comes at Mexico's Expense
By Marifeli Pérez-Stable and Christian Gómez, Jr.
Source: Latin America Advisor
According to Fortune magazine, Mexican mogul Carlos Slim has surpassed Microsoft founder Bill Gates as the world's richest man. Slim's estimated $59 billion empire—which includes over 200 companies in telecommunications, construction, tobacco, mining, and banking, among others—constitutes a third of the Mexican stock market and more than five percent of the country's 2006 GDP.

September 19, 2007: Discussion on Current Trends in Remittances to Latin America and the Caribbean
By Elisabeth Burgess for the Dialogue's Financial Services Advisor
Money Transfer Operators Not Worried About Bank Competition

September 13, 2007: Global Market Turmoil: What Will It Mean for Latin America?
By Paul Wander
Good Economic Policy Key to ‘Weathering the Storm’

September 5, 2007: As Low Priority, Latin American Schools Not Very Competitive
By Jeffrey Puryear
Source: Published in the Dialogue's Latin America Advisor
Everyone agrees that quality education is crucial, and should be extended to all children, especially the poor. But when it comes time to make tough decisions, the consensus breaks down.

August 17, 2007: To US' Chagrin, Chavez Gives Iran Entry Into Latin America
By Dan Erikson
Source: Published in the Dialogue's daily Latin America Advisor.
WASHINGTON—"When I come to Iran, Washington gets upset," Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez noted during his official visit to Tehran earlier this summer.

August 14, 2007: Region Still Lags Developed World in Ability to Buy a Big Mac
By Claudio Loser
Source: Published in the Dialogue's Latin America Advisor.
Somewhat more than two years ago, I wrote in this column about the Big Mac index of costs and wages, based on the well-known work published in The Economist ... I believe it is time to revisit the subject.

August 1, 2007: Where Does Banco del Sur Fit In?
By Marifeli Pérez-Stable and Christian Gómez, Jr.
Source: Latin America Advisor
Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez envisions Banco del Sur as a key component of his larger Latin American integration project. In theory, Banco del Sur—a South American development bank for South America—would eliminate the region's reliance on international financial institutions (IFIs), such as the World Bank, IMF, and IDB.

July 24, 2007: Region's Finance Ministers Less Corrupt Than Other Ministers
By Claudio Loser
Source: Published in the Dialogue’s Latin America Advisor.
In reaction to the recent "restroom-gate" accusations made against former Argentine Economy Minister Felisa Miceli, I was asked by my friend and Advisor Editor Robert Simpson whether finance ministers in Latin America had a track record of corruption higher than the average for the members of their governments.

July 19, 2007: Peruvian Teachers' Strike Highlights Struggle for Reform
By Jeffrey Puryear
Source: Published in the Dialogue's Latin America Advisor
Peru's teachers union (SUTEP) launched a national strike in early July when Congress passed a bill that would require public school teachers to take regular competency exams.

July 2, 2007: JFK Terrorist Plot Draws US Spotlight on Caribbean
By Dan Erikson
Source: Published in the Dialogue's daily Latin America Advisor.
When the JFK airport bombing conspiracy was revealed last month, many Americans were shocked to learn that the latest terror plot had been hatched in the Caribbean.

June 27, 2007: Study Shows Doing Business in Latin America is Not Easy
By Claudio Loser
Source: Published in the Dialogue's Latin America Advisor.
A common frustration of domestic and foreign investors in Latin America is the complexity involved in doing business in the region, and thus difficulties in engaging in new investments.

May 23, 2007: Data on Latin America's Rich Highlights Region's Inequality
By Claudio Loser
Source: Published in the Dialogue’s Latin America Advisor.
Forbes Magazine announced recently that Mexico's Carlos Slim, with assets over $50 billion, is now the second-richest man in the world ... It is a fairly inordinate position for a Latin American, because the region represents about 4.5 percent of world wealth.

April 24, 2007: The Shrinking Presence of the IMF in Latin America
By Claudio Loser
Source: Published in the Dialogue’s Latin America Advisor.
Six months ago, I reviewed in this column the potentially declining role of the region in the governance of the International Monetary Fund ... In the aftermath of the spring meetings of the IMF and the World Bank earlier this month, I want to analyze the reverse phenomenon—the shrinking role of the IMF in Latin America.

March 5, 2007: Price Controls Not Effective in Slowing Argentine Inflation
By Claudio Loser
Source: Published in the Dialogue’s Latin America Advisor.
Since 2004, Argentina has been carrying out a campaign of price controls as a mechanism to reduce inflation. The authorities claim that this is a novel approach that provides an alternative to the technocratic and market-related approach suggested by the IMF and others.

February 12, 2007: English-Speaking Caribbean Not Doing as Well as Thought
By Claudio Loser
Source: Published in the Dialogue’s Latin America Advisor.
In this column, I will review the current situation of the English-speaking Caribbean—12 counties that range from the turbulent Jamaica and the prosperous Trinidad and Tobago, to the tiny members of the Eastern Caribbean Currency Union.

February 7, 2007: Latin America's Wireless Sector Outlook
By Robert Simpson

January 31, 2007: Democracy Growing Stronger in Region, But Urgent Reform Needed
By Elisabeth Burgess
Originally published in the Latin America Advisor

January 23, 2007: Venezuelan Measures Response to Years of Economic Decline
By Claudio Loser
Source: Published in the Dialogue’s Latin America Advisor.
At the time of his recent, second inauguration as president of Venezuela, Hugo Chavez announced his intention to nationalize a number of "strategic" industries, like electricity and telecommunications, and privatize areas of oil production. Furthermore, he will drastically restrict Central Bank autonomy.