Carlos D. Mesa is a historian, politician, and journalist and was the President of Bolivia between 2003 and 2005.

Elected in 2002 as vice president and president of the national congress, he became the constitutional president of Bolivia in 2003. His government amended the Constitution, passed referenda on hydrocarbons, the direct election of mayors, and a constituent assembly. His government also overcame a high fiscal deficit, revitalized the economy, doubled exports, and instituted human rights as state policy.

Prior to that, Mesa was founder and director of Cinemateca Boliviana in 1976 and since 1979 has been a press, radio and television journalist. He served as was deputy director of the newspaper Ultima Hora and director of three channels of TV: America TV, Telesistema Boliviano and ATB. He is President of the Fundación Comunidad, which works to strengthen democratic institutions and human rights. He is also the author of sixteen books on topics ranging from Bolivian history to Latin American cinema. He is a member of the Bolivian Academy of History and the Bolivian Society of History.

He studied literature at the Universidad Complutense de Madrid and the Universidad Mayor de San Andrés de La Paz.